The Life of Adzom Drukpa

Biographies | Tibetan MastersAdzom Drukpa

English | བོད་ཡིག

Adzom Drukpa

Adzom Drukpa Drodül Pawo Dorje

Further Information:

The Hook of Blessing and Compassion[1]

An Invocation Recalling Briefly the Life and Liberation of the Drukchen Drodül Pawo Dorje, My Loving Supreme Guru[2]

by Lhundrup Tso (1864–1946)[3]

Marvelous!

To the Dharmakāya Infinite Vision (Amitābha),
To the Sambhogakāya Great Compassion (Avalokiteśvara),
To the Nirmānakāya Lotus Necklace of Skulls (Padmasaṃbhava),
To you, Master, who are the union of the three kāyas [4]
I pray:
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In the center of Dridza[5] in Kham,
In the lower part of the region called Khrom, essence of the Garuda,[6]
In the area that manifests the characters a and dzam,[7]
You had a marvelous birth:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In the year of the Water Tiger in the fourteenth rabjung cycle,[8]
On the fifteenth day of the sixth month,[9]
In the time of the tiger in the early morning,[10]
You manifested the maṇḍala of the physical body:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

The yogin Namkha,[11] nephew of
Dzatrul Nampar Gyalwa,[12]
And Yeshe Drönma, daughter of a tertön [13]
Were your parents:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

A great heat arose in the countryside,
And as many flowers burst into bloom,
The light of dawn
Totally permeated the inside of your house:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Seven days after your birth,
All the neighbors heard you chant several times in a clear voice
The six-syllable mantra[14]
Of the Noble One (Avalokiteśvara):
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Your father, Namkhai Dorje
Performed the rites of purification and long life for you,[15]
And then gave you the name
Kunzang Rangdrol Dorje:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When you were three years old,
You narrated clearly the life
Of the omniscient Pema Karpo,[16]
Declaring yourself to be his emanation:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When you were almost seven,
The great being Yeshe Dorje[17]
Accepted you as his student
And gave you the name Drodül Pawo Dorje:[18]
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

There you were crowned and acclaimed
As the sole protector for maintaining, continuing, and developing
The direct transmission of the three series of Dzogchen,[19]
The teaching of the Mind of Samantabhadra:[20]
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When you were nine years old,
Many masters and reincarnations of eastern Tibet,
First among them Jamgön Khyentse,[21]
Praised you as an emanation of the Drukchen (Pema Karpo):
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When you were thirteen,
Dorje Ziji Tsal[22]
Entrusted you with the profound teaching
Of the Chetsün Nyingtik:[23]
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Pema Düddul Tsal[24]
Bestowed upon you the empowerment of the energy of instant presence,[25]
And the moment you received the direct transmission of the primordial state
Your knowledge from past lives reawakened completely:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When the three incomparable Jamgöns[26]
Entrusted you with the profound seal of maturation and of liberation,[27]
The door of the secret treasures of the mind
Spontaneously sprang open for you:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Thorough understanding of the state of knowledge
Of the supreme scholar Mipham Namgyal,
Of the great siddha Shakya Shri,
And of other masters of diverse traditions also arose in you:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

While you were practicing the ganapūja of the Three Roots[28]
In the Turquoise Hall at Samye,[29]
Guru Dewa Chenpo[30]
Accepted you as his disciple and gave you advice:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In the temple of Vajrasattva at Ralung,[31]
As you began to transmit the teaching of the Ronyom,[32]
The protector Shingkyong[33] appeared to you in human form
And gave you the key[34] to the terma of Vajrasattva:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

While you were maintaining the view of Dzogchen
In the residences of Longchenpa and of Jigme Lingpa,[35]
Several times you actually met them,
And their advice brought you to a final understanding of the teaching:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

After practicing three years in retreat,
At Trashi Tungkar Khyilwa,[36]
You completely opened the seal
Of The Secret Treasury of the Vajra of Luminous Clarity:[37]
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When the darkness of the conflict between Chinese and Tibetans
Was about to obscure Eastern Tibet,[38]
The compassionate rays of your power
Made the light of benefit and happiness reappear:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When the lotus garden of Derge
Was threatened by the frost of negative conditions,
Arousing the clouds of your spiritual energy,
You caused the nectar of prosperity to flow:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Like bees enticed by nectar,
Numberless students, Tibetan and Chinese,
Swarmed from every direction,
And you accepted them with love:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In a pause during the Great Exorcism of Negative Times,[39]
Dorje Trolö[40] actually appeared to you,
And after opening the seal of the treasure of secret teachings,
Bestowed on you great power and spiritual energy:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

While you were performing the lower rite of liberating destruction[41] of Trolö,
Before all those present,
The liṅga effigy groaned in pain
And blood flowed from its mouth:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Once during a drubchen [42] of Vajrasattva,
You caused everyone to see
A blue character ཧཱུྂ (hūṃ)[43] brilliant with five-colored rays
In a white cloud in the sky:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

While you were transmitting the teachings of Lama Yangtik[44]
To me and other students,
You pointed your index finger skyward in the threatening gesture[45]
And caused the character (a), white and luminous, to appear:
To you I pray, Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When you conferred the initiation of Takhyung Barwa[46]
On Trokhe Ugyen Tendzin
Who had been possessed by the negative forces of insanity,[47]
You caused spiritual energy and a resolute behavior to be born in him:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

When the young Tsewang Namgyal[48]
Was struck by paralysis provoked by a curse,[49]
You performed the rite that liberates from curses
And in that very moment returned him to health:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In your dharma residence (Adzom Gar) primarily
And in other special places,
You repaired, built, and protected countless exemplars
Of the three representations[50] of the Three Roots and of the Victorious Ones:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Transmitting four times[51]
The initiations and instructions of the kama (oral) tradition[52] of the three series (of Dzogchen)
Together with their supplementary upadeśas,
You nurtured your students:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Transmitting eight times[53]
The Nyingtik Yabshi[54] cycle of teachings,
You helped mature and liberate
Innumerable fortunate students:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In particular, you transmitted thirty-eight times[55]
The Longchen Nyingtik cycle,
Principal among the teachings you gave in the summer,
Thus allowing your students to attain liberation:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

And through you arose a countless number
Of masters and holders of the teaching from diverse traditions,
Such as Gyurme (Dorje) and your other children,[56] and your spiritual sons
Such as the first and second emanations of Khyentse:[57]
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

By means of the three wheels of study, contemplation, and activity[58]
You increased the happiness and the benefits
For the teaching and beings in a measure that cannot be calculated,
Completely beyond any definition:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Summoning your beloved student
Togden Ugyen Tendzin,
You predicted in a clear way
That soon you would pass into nirvana:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Fortunate students from diverse directions
Gathered around you in great numbers,
And for more than three months
You imparted profound oral teachings and upadeśas:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Specifically affirming the necessity of the ganapūja
For purifying the samaya[59] between master and students,
Every day for three weeks you performed (with us)
The ganapūja of Vajrasattva together with the confession (of mistakes):
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Manifesting for three weeks
The signs of bodily illness,
Each day you exhorted your students
To (witness the truth of) impermanence:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

And you promised and predicted,
“Even if for a while I repose in the peaceful state,
Soon my emanation will appear
In order to teach fortunate beings:”
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

On the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month
Of the year of the male Wood Dog,[60] in the afternoon,
You assumed the position of Vajrasattva
And pronouncing hik,[61] passed into nirvana:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

In that moment in the pure space of the sky,
Rainbow clouds amassed in the form of ceremonial parasols,
While you showered us with a delicate snow
Of white lotus blossoms:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

For three weeks
You remained motionless in samādhi;
Then you left a body that was the size of an eight-year-old boy
As a spiritual support[62] in the human world:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Hundreds of lamas and reincarnations of different traditions
Gathered from every direction,
And when they carried your body to the cremation grounds,
Thunder rolled three times:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

And they all saw clearly
That the sky was filled with rainbows,
That among flames five-colored ཧཱུྂ (hūṃ) were appearing,
And that even the smoke took the form of ཧཱུྂ.
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

The bones and ashes of your body
Were blazing with five-colored light,
And more than three thousand relics appeared,
Small as mustard seeds:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Even if now, my Lord, you are resting in nirvana,
From time to time you appear in dreams
To me and other fortunate students,
To clarify our doubts on profound, important points:
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

Although your compassion, my Lord,
Is the same as that of all the sugatas,[63]
Your kindness will never be equaled in this world:
My supreme Root Master,
To you I pray,
Sustain me with the hook of your compassion!

O King, you who are everything for me,
From now until I attain enlightenment,
Without a moment’s separation,
Dwell in me as the essence of my instant presence:
Sustain me and all beings with whom you have had contact
With the hook of your compassion!

Impelled by unbearable sadness over the passing into nirvana of our loving Master, feeling that we disciples remain without protection like children abandoned in a desert, I, Lhundrup Tso, the worst among us, have written this invocation from my heart during a pause in a retreat devoted to the practice of White Tārā.

| Translated by Adriano Clemente and originally published in Rainbow Body, The Life and Realization of a Tibetan Yogin, Togden Ugyen Tendzin. Republished on Lotsawa House, 2016, with permission.


  1. The hook is a metaphor often used in spiritual invocations to symbolize the compassion of the enlightened ones who thus take hold of beings, rescuing them from saṃsāra.  ↩

  2. Drin chen bla ma ’brug chen ’gro ’dul dpa’ bo rdo rje’i rnam thar cung zad dran pa’i sgo nas gsol ba ’debs pa byin rlabs thugs rje’i lcags kyu.  ↩

  3. Lhundrub Tso (1864–1946) was the paternal grandmother of Chögyal Namkhai Norbu. All the extant writings of this yoginī were collected by her granddaughter Jamyang Chödrön in The Precious Necklace, Selected Writings of the Aged Yoginī Kunzang Chöying Tso (Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, ed., A phyi rnal ’byor ma kun bzang chos dbyings mtsho’i gsung phyogs btus rin chen do shal.) Further accounts of the life of Adzom Drukpa can be found in other sources, both Tibetan and Western. The most extensive biography of A ’dzoms (or A ’dzom) ’brug pa in Tibetan is by his son ’Gyur med rdo rje, Rje btsun grub pa’i dbang phyug rig ’dzin ’gro ’dul dpa’ bo rdo rje’i rnam thar skal bzang yid kyi gdung sel [Eliminating the mental suffering of the fortunate ones: The life and liberation of the venerable king of siddhas, the knowledge-holder ’Gro ’dul dpa’ bo rdo rje], 1945. A short biography is contained in Bstan ’dzin lung rtogs nyi ma, Snga ’gyur grub dbang rgyal ba rdzogs chen pa’i gdan rabs chos brgyud dang bcas pa byung ba brjod pa’i gtam yid bzhin dbang gi rgyal po ’i phreng ba (Beijing: Krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang, 2004), 615–22. The longest biography in English is to be found in Nyoshul Khenpo, A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems: Biographies of Masters of Awareness in the Dzogchen Lineage (Junction City, CA: Padma Publishing, 2005), pp. 290-2–96. Interesting details of his life are also related in Rab-gsal-zla-ba, Dis-mgo Mkhyen-brtse, Brilliant Moon: The Autobiography of Dilgo Khyentse, trans. Ani Jinba Palmo (Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2008); and Kathog Situ Chokyi Gyatso, Togden Shakya Shri.  ↩

  4. The three kāyas or enlightened dimensions represent the three fundamental aspects of existence of body, voice, and mind in their original purity, here symbolized by Padmasaṃbhava, Avalokiteśvara, and Amitābha, respectively.  ↩

  5. ’Bri rdza zal mo sgang, one of the “six ridges” of Eastern Tibet (mdo khams sgang drug), corresponds to a vast area around Sde dge.  ↩

  6. Khrom is the heart syllable of the divine eagle called Garuda, and Khrom yul or Khrom thar is the name of an area southeast of Sde dge.  ↩

  7. The birthplace of A ’dzoms ’brug pa, here spelled A dzam ’brug pa, was a small village known as A dzam because the configuration of its landscape resembled the Tibetan characters A and DZAM.  ↩

  8. The system of calculating years according to Tibetan astrology is based on sixty-year cycles called rab byung, the first of which corresponds to the year 1027 CE when the Kālacakra tantra was introduced in Tibet.  ↩

  9. The sixth month usually corresponds to July or August.  ↩

  10. The twenty-four hours of a day, according to Tibetan astrology, are subdivided into twelve periods of two hours each, represented by twelve animals. The time of the tiger is the last of the twelve periods, corresponding to 3–5 a.m.  ↩

  11. Or Nam mkha’i rdo rje. In other biographies his name is given as Bsod nams rgya mtsho.  ↩

  12. A Dzaḥ sprul Rin po che Kun bzang rnam par rgyal ba is mentioned in the biography of Nyag bla Pad ma bdud ’dul (1816–1872) as an important master from the Khrom region who was still alive when A’ dzoms ’Brug pa was probably in his early twenties. See Ye shes rdo rje, Nyag bla pad ma bdud ’dul gyi rnam thar dang gsung ’bum (Chengdu: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1998), 120. This biography has been translated by Oriol Aguilar Vila in Yshe Dorje, The Cloud of Nectar, Shang Shung Publications, 2013.  ↩

  13. Probably Bsam gtan gling pa ’Phrin las ’gro ’dul las rab bde ba rtsal who lived in the nineteenth century, a student of the fourth Rdzogs chen Rin po che, Mi ’gyur nam mkha’i rdo rje (1793–1870). The name of the mother of A ’dzoms ’brug pa is given as A ka in most biographies.  ↩

  14. Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ.  ↩

  15. Tibetan: bsang khrus and tshe sgrub, respectively.  ↩

  16. Kun mkhyen Pad ma dkar po (1527–1592), an outstanding master and scholar, was the fourth ’Brug chen (“Great ’Brug”), head of the ’Brug pa Bka’ brgyud tradition, based at Rwa lung, Central Tibet. After his death, two candidates were chosen by different factions, and the Rwa lung candidate, Zhabs drung Ngag dbang rnam rgyal (1594–1651), as a consequence of internal strife, fled to Bhutan, where he became the first dharmarāja. Also, the ninth ’Brug chen had two reincarnations, one of whom was A ’dzoms ’brug pa, who, although not officially installed as such, retained the title of ’Brug chen.  ↩

  17. Mdo mkhyen brtse Ye shes rdo rje (1800–1866), a great master in the Klong chen snying thig lineage.  ↩

  18. This name, among those formally given, is the best known. Others used by A ’dzoms brug pa in his writings are Sna tshogs rang grol and Dri med klong yangs.  ↩

  19. The three series of Rdzogs chen are the series of mind (sems sde), the series of space (klong sde), and the series of secret instructions or upadeśa (man ngag sde).  ↩

  20. Rdzogs chen is known as the “teaching of the Mind of Samantabhadra” (kun bzang thugs kyi bstan pa) as it reveals the knowledge of the state of the dharmakāya, personified by the primordial buddha Samantabhadra.  ↩

  21. ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po (1820–1892), one of the most important masters of the nineteenth century as well as an extraordinary gter ston.  ↩

  22. Rdo rje gzi brjid rtsal is one of the gter ston names of ’Jam dbyangs Mkhyen brtse’i dbang po.  ↩

  23. Lce btsun snying gi thig le in the text; see Rainbow Body, Chapter 3 note 8.  ↩

  24. Nyag bla Pad ma bdud ’dul (1816–1872), a great Rdzogs chen master who achieved the rainbow body (’ja’ lus). See note 13 above.  ↩

  25. On the Rdzogs chen path, the “empowerment of the energy of instant presence” (rig pa’i rtsal dbang) substitutes all initiations (dbang) of the tantric path. Its purpose is the transmission of the state of the master into the mind of the student in order to reawaken the latter’s nondual, pure awareness or instant presence (rig pa).  ↩

  26. The three gentle lords (’jam mgon gsum) are ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po, ’Jam mgon Kong sprul Blo gros mtha’ yas (1813–1890), and ’Ju Mi pham ’Jam dbyangs rnam rgyal rgya mtsho (1846–1912). These three masters, together with the great gter ston Mchog gyur gling pa (1829–1870), were the main exponents of the ris med (nonsectarian) movement of the nineteenth-century spiritual renaissance in Khams. Sometimes Mchog gyur gling pa is listed as one of the three instead of ’Ju Mi pham.  ↩

  27. Maturation and liberation (smin grol) refer to the two fundamental aspects of the tantric path: the initiation to mature (smin byed kyi dbang) knowledge and the instructions to attain liberation (grol byed kyi khrid).  ↩

  28. In the first phase of the ganapūja, the offerings are always dedicated to the three roots (rtsa gsum), who are guru, devas (manifestations of realized beings on the Sambhogakāya level), and ḍākinīs (manifestations in feminine form); see also Chapter 1 note 10.  ↩

  29. Bsam yas or Bsam yas mi ’gyur lhun gyis grub pa’i gtsug lag khang is the most ancient Buddhist monastery in Tibet, built at the time of King Khri srong lde’u btsan (742–797). In the Turquoise Hall (G.yu zhal can), on the third floor, Padmasaṃbhava often gave teachings to the king.  ↩

  30. Bde ba chen po (Total Bliss), a form of Padmasaṃbhava.  ↩

  31. The monastery of Rwa lung in Central Tibet in Gtsang was founded by Gtsang pa rgya ras Ye shes rdo rje (1161–1211), the founder of the ’Brug pa Bka’ brgyud tradition, of whom Pad ma dkar po was considered to be an emanation.  ↩

  32. Ro snyoms skor drug, The Six Cycles of Equal Taste, a special teaching of the ’Brug pa bka’ brgyud school rediscovered by Gtsang pa rgya ras. It contains instructions on how to apply the following six aspects as the path: thoughts, emotions, illness, deities and demons, suffering, and death.  ↩

  33. Zhing skyong is a manifestation of Mahākāla with the face of a crow.  ↩

  34. In the text gnad byang, one of the indications received by a gter ston before discovering a gter ma.  ↩

  35. Klong chen pa or Klong chen rab ’byams pa (1308–1363) and ’Jigs med gling pa (1730–1798), two among the greatest Rdzogs chen masters and scholars of the Rnying rma tradition. Their principal residences were Gangs ri thod dkar and Tshe ring ljongs, respectively, both in Central Tibet.  ↩

  36. Bkra shis dung dkar ’khyil ba (The Auspicious Spiraling White Conch Shell) near A ’dzoms sgar.  ↩

  37. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 6 note 12.  ↩

  38. This is a reference to attacks by the Chinese in Eastern Tibet at the turn of the nineteenth century and immediately after. See Shakabpa, Tibet, 224–25.  ↩

  39. Tibetan: Dus bzlog chen mo, a ritual performed with the aim of averting serious disturbances and obstacles.  ↩

  40. Rdo rje gro lod is a wrathful manifestation of Padmasaṃbhava, depicted riding a tiger.  ↩

  41. The rites of liberating destruction (bsgral ba) are aimed at eliminating negative forces. They are usually accomplished through the destroying of a symbolic figurine made of dough or paper called a liṅga that represents all the disturbing entities. Tantric rituals are generally subdivided into higher activity (stod las), aimed at developing one’s spiritual practice, and lower activity (smad las), which deals with the removal of obstructing forces.  ↩

  42. Tibetan: sgrub chen, an intensive group practice in which a mantra has to be recited without interruption for a specific period of time.  ↩

  43. The character HŪṂ symbolizes the state of the Mind of all enlightened beings.  ↩

  44. Bla ma yang tig (The Supreme Essence), belonging to the Snying thig ya bzhi cycle. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 6 note 4.  ↩

  45. Tibetan: sdig mdzub, literally “gesture of menace,” a mudrā to control negativities in which the index finger is extended and the thumb touches the base of the curved ring finger. When the index finger is pointed forward, it symbolizes direct introduction of the primordial state to the student.  ↩

  46. This was probably conferred after the Byad ’grol rite referred to in U rgyan bstan ’dzin’s biography. The Rta khyung ’bar ba belongs to the Klong chen snying thig cycle, and its practice is based on a wrathful manifestation of Padmasaṃbhava.  ↩

  47. Tibetan: smyo ’bog gdon.  ↩

  48. The son of Lhun grub mtsho. On this occasion he received the name Sgrol ma tshe ring (Tārā of Long Life), an unusual name for a male.  ↩

  49. Tibetan: gza’ grib byad.  ↩

  50. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 5 note 17.  ↩

  51. In the text rgyal chen sde bzhi, “as the four great kings (in number).”  ↩

  52. Bka’ ma refers to all scriptures originally translated into Tibetan, as opposed to gter ma or rediscovered treasures.  ↩

  53. In the text ’phags lam grangs, “as the (eightfold) noble path in number.”  ↩

  54. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 6 note 4.  ↩

  55. In the text byang chos gcig lhag, corresponding to the number of the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (byang chub kyi chos sum cu rtsa bdun) plus one.  ↩

  56. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 3 note 10.  ↩

  57. This probably refers to ’Jam dbyangs chos kyi dbang po (1893–1909), the first body incarnation (sku sprul) of ’Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po, and Mkhyen brtse Chos kyi dbang phyug (1909–1960), the second body incarnation. An important student of A ’dzoms ’brug pa was also the renowned Mkhyen brtse activity incarnation, ’Jam dbyangs chos kyi blo gros (1896–1959).  ↩

  58. Tibetan: ’khor lo gsum, an abbreviation for klog pa thos bsam gyi ’khor lo (reading, the wheel of listening and reflecting), spong ba bsam gtan gyi ’khor lo (abandonment, the wheel of contemplating), and bya ba las kyi ’khor lo (activity, the wheel of work).  ↩

  59. See Rainbow Body, Chapter 13 note 8.  ↩

  60. According to the biography by ’Gyur med rdo rje, Rje btsun grub pa’i dbang phyug rig ’dzin ’gro ’dul dpa’ bo rdo rje’i rnam thar skal bzang yid kyi gdung sel (95a–97a), the great master passed away on the fourth day of the twelfth month of the year of the female Water Boar, at dawn, corresponding to January 10, 1924.  ↩

  61. Hik is an aspirated syllable generally used in the yoga of the transference of consciousness (’pho ba).  ↩

  62. Tibetan: gdung rten.  ↩

  63. Tibetan: bder gshegs, literally “those who have gone to bliss,” namely the buddhas.  ↩

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