Biography of the Great Orgyen

Biographies | Tibetan MastersDudjom Lingpa

English | བོད་ཡིག

The Biography of the Great Orgyen that Naturally Liberates On Sight

From The Profound Secret Heart Essence of the Ḍākinī [1]

revealed by Dudjom Lingpa

Introduction

Homage to the principal guru, Padmākara![2]
I bow to Dharmakāya Samantabhadra, the primordial ground;
I bow to Gangchen Tso,[3] spontaneous magical display;
I bow to Lake-Born Vajra,[4] the dance of myriad forms of compassion;
I bow to the tamer of those difficult to tame!

Long ago, in the Spontaneously-Arisen Temple of Samyé,
Raised through the miraculous power of humans, gods and demons,
In the shrine room in the middle storey of the assembly hall
The sovereign Emperor, Trisong Detsen
Invited the great Orgyen to beat the dharma drum,
And a host of translators, scholars, and the Tibetan king and subjects came.

Then, both foreign and domestic ministers advised,
“Since the Emperor and the great Master
Will give edicts for the welfare of Tibet,
If this were done in a place where all can see and hear,
Then everyone could listen,
And we assembled ministers would be pleased.”
And all the hosts of ministers agreed.

Offering an arm-length of white silk brocade,
The noble son of Nub, Sönam Drak,[5] said:
“Kye Ho! Lord of the black-headed Tibetans, Dharma King –
If the Emperor and Orgyen, the protectors of beings,
Were to address the ministers and subjects here,
The assembly would be uncomfortable.
It would be better if we reconvened on Yobok Changmé Plain.[6]
For if all could hear the royal edicts,
No one, whether high or low, would contradict them.”
To that request, the sovereign Dharma King replied,
“It would be better, just as he has said.”

So, at daybreak on the tenth day in the first month of summer,
They constructed a throne at Yobok Changmé,
And invited the great Orgyen to be seated there.

Then, offering various precious substances, such as gold, silver and so forth,
Along with multicoloured silk brocades of all five colours,
Emperor Trisong Detsen approached the Guide, the great Orgyen, and requested,
“Kye Ho! O Sovereign, universal splendour, Vajra-bearer!
For all of us Tibetans, Emperor and subjects,
Please relate a short account of your life and liberation,
In order to support our faith and produce devotion!”
And the Emperor and subjects made full prostrations.

The great Orgyen said,
“Listen, you faithful Tibetans, Emperor and subjects!
There is not much to my life story.
In the dregs of time, at the end of this eon,
Even though I, the Lotus-born, have arrived,
It will be difficult to benefit beings, as will they lack sufficient merit.

“Inept adepts and charlatan ‘treasure-revealers’
Will infest the land, acting like madmen.
Relentlessly deceiving the minds of the ignorant through fraud and ruse,
They will roam everywhere like dogs.
People like that resort to lovers and friends
And depend on trinkets and gold.

“My emanations — genuine, authentic yogis
Who, having abandoned activities,
Strive to practice the heart-essence in random mountain retreats —
Will be subject to slander, hurled like paving stones.
Therefore, when this profound treasure comes to be revealed,
Rare will be the ones with faith in it.

“By the power of our positive aspirations and karmic connections,
The minds of teacher and retinue are inseparable,
So there is no need for an explanation of my life story
In order to train disciples.

“I myself have not really come into the world,
As I am the unelaborate dharmakāya, like the maṇḍala of the sun.
Yet from the perspectives of my disciples
My life story appears in myriad ways
According to every limited viewpoint,
Like wavering moons in bodies of water.

“However, since the Emperor so commands, I will briefly recount it.
Listen well, faithful men and women
Led by the ruler of black-headed Tibetans!”

Chapter 1

“My life story is inconceivable
Because the scope of activities undertaken
By every type and manner of student is inconceivable —
There is not a single fixed parameter.
The ground as pure space is the great bliss of the all-encompassing space of phenomena;
The ground as appearance is Anantavyūha,[7] the ultimate nature.

“On the relative level, for the sake of sincere students,
The perfect Buddha Amitābha
Manifests from the western Sukhāvatī pure land,
To train disciples through compassionate methods.

“On the tenth day of the middle month of summer, in the snake year,
An emanated mass of light marked with a hrīḥ syllable
Entered the womb of Queen Nordzin Tso,
The wife of the nāga King Migön Karpo.[8]

“After five months, a nāga child named Öd Tro,[9]
Exceedingly handsome and charming,
Overwhelmed all of the nāgas, nyens, and earth-lords with his melodious voice.
In accordance with the body, speech, and mind
Of those to be trained, he manifested an illusory dance through skilful means.
He taught the dharma, transmitted tantras, gave vows, and bestowed empowerments.”

This is the first chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he took birth in the realm of the nāgas and benefitted beings.

Chapter 2

“Then, I saw that the human realm was ready to be tamed.
I saw the protector of the dharma, King Indrabhūti
Endowed with the power of merit in the human realm
In the land of Uḍḍiyāna, one of the thirty-two countries of the world.

“Like stars amassed in the sky
Foreign and domestic ministers and hosts of soldiers
Surrounded the master and commander, the great King.

“The King, the dharma protector, was wealthy but blind. He lamented:
‘I have one hundred queens, yet not a single son —
And this despite all that has been done by dharma practitioners,
Mediums, astrologers, and dream-workers.

“‘Likewise, I myself have done whatever rituals and virtuous deeds could be done.
When I asked all of them,
‘Is there not some method for producing a son to rule the kingdom?’
They all said, ‘If you distribute alms impartially, a son will be born.’

“Then, the blind wealthy King
Assembled the hosts of ministers, foreign and domestic, and royal consorts
Within a pleasure grove and settled on a high throne.

“At the head of the rows and ranks of ministers and queens,
A great minister named Natha Vajra[10] asked,
‘The edict of the Dharma King himself has been issued,
But why are we ministers and subjects gathered?
We will excellently accomplish whatsoever we are commanded.’

“The King said,
‘Though I have no particular commands for you ministers and subjects,
Throughout day and night, I am constantly aware
That in this life, I am without the child I so need.
I do not have the teachings that will be necessary in later lives,
And I do not have the eyes that I need.

“‘Half of my life is over!
When I die, this dominion will have no lord, like an empty cavern.
This wealth will have no owner, like an illusory manifestation.
Conduct will be capricious, like childish play.
The subjects will have no ruler, like tea-leaves without tips.
The land will have no ruler, like a city of gandharvas.
When the land is held by this dead man’s widow, the realm will decline.

“‘When I wander alone to the far shore,
My suffering will be a private burden.
Consorts, lords, subjects, property, wealth, enjoyments — none can be preserved.
Early in life, men hang around with friends,
Later, men chase after them like a house full of sparrows.
Thinking of this again and again, desolation fills my mind.

“‘Now, I must try to find
A method for producing
A worthy son to hold the kingdom.
When I ask scholars for divination, calculation, and clairvoyance,
They say, ‘If you distribute alms impartially, a son will be born.’
So now, in all directions,
We must give alms to the destitute —
Gather and spread the news to all those in need.’

“All of the ministers and subjects assented,
And in all directions it was proclaimed:
‘Gather the hosts of the poor, the destitute, and the beggars!’

“After many years of generous giving to whoever was lacking,
The royal treasury eventually emptied.
The source of the generosity was exhausted, but the begging persisted.
Then, the King thought to himself,
‘The causes of generosity are no longer present,
So I must venture to the island in the ocean to get some jewels.’

“Then I, as the emanation of Amitābha,
Imparted this thought to the Nāga Lady Changchub Drolma:[11]
‘When the truth is invoked, give what they request.’

“The principal attendant responsible for clearing obstacles on the road
Assembled five hundred Buddhist and non-Buddhist masters.
Many attendants were commanded to give protection and avert obstacles.
The merchant Karma Zangpo[12]
Was instructed to prepare all requisite provisions
And five royal ministers embarked on a boat
Bound, with the merchant, to retrieve jewels from the ocean.

“On the tenth day of the first month of summer in the monkey year,
In the middle of the limpid milky ocean,[13]
They saw a white child adorned with the major and minor marks,
Handsome and exalted,
Sitting on an opened lotus with one hundred multi-coloured petals
Within an expansive pavilion of five-coloured rainbow light.

“Upon seeing me, the merchant and royal ministers
Relayed what they had seen to the King.
Immediately after hearing of this,
His eyes were opened, as though waking from a dream.

“Joining his palms with delight, he respectfully asked,
‘How wondrous! A supreme embodiment of the Buddhas of the three times!
What is your homeland and lineage?
Who are your father and mother?
What is the purpose of your arising here?
To which domain do you want to go now?
I ask you to kindly tell me!’

“Then I replied,
‘Kye! Listen, O Sovereign Dharma King!
My father is Samantabhadra,
My mother is Great Bliss, Samantabhadrī.
My homeland is the pure all-encompasing space of phenomena,
My lineage is the all-pervasive vajra-nature.
My bloodline is great unchanging enlightenment,
And I have come to this world to increase
Welfare and happiness in matters of religion and state.’

“After I gave that response, the King replied,
‘Precious child, emanation of the Buddhas,
I request that you come to my kingdom.’

“In response to the invitation I said,
‘Well then, one yojana[14] away from here, on the far shore,
Lies the jewelled castle of the land of the nāgas,
Beautiful, alluring, and elegant.

“‘If you say to the nāga princess Changchub Drolma,
‘Please, give me the jewel that I seek!’
She will give it, and we will retrace the path which brought you here.
Accordingly, the merchant, King, and ministers departed.

“Upon delivering the message to the nāga Changchub Drolma,
She gave the wish-fulfilling jewel, the provider of desirables.
When they returned,
The King, an emanation of the Buddha,
Said that he had been to the palace.
Seated upon a lotus,
I was then known by the name Guru Tsokyé Dorje.

“Welcomed back with much incense and music,
The King invoked from the gem a jewelled throne –
And a lofty throne appeared, becoming and elegant.

“In the year of the thirteenth zodiac house, I was enthroned as royalty.
I lived in the house of Prabhāvatī, the daughter of Dhaha.[15]
I was then known as Guru Pema Gyalpo,
And for five years I remained in the kingdom.”

This is the second chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he held the kingdom of Uḍḍiyāna.

Chapter 3

“One day, at the eastern gate of the palace, I was entertained
By ḍākas and ḍākinīs of the field of timeless awareness.
Conjuring up a great magical city,
They displayed the many permutations of the sufferings of beings
Such that I became weary of domestic life.

“Later, a spectacle occurred at the southern gate:
I saw many manifestations of sick and ailing people.
By seeing the fleeting nature of joy and happiness
I realized the vital point of impermanence, and that the body lacks an inherent nature.

“That same day, I went to the western gate,
Where I saw signs of old age and poverty.
I saw that the activities of saṃsāra have no essence,
And since even the youthful and powerful end up this way,
I was sure that such suffering would fall upon us all.

“When I went to the scene at the northern gate,
I saw many expressions of dead and dying people.
In life there is no certainty; death is the sole authority.
I understood the signs
Of the need to cut my holding
To temporary, dream-like appearances as permanent.

“Then, when I disobeyed the King’s laws
And killed a minister’s son
The King and subjects were cast into distress
And could not agree on whether I should be sent into exile.

“When the King and the hosts of ministers all assembled,
The minister named Zangden[16] said,
“The king, ministers, and subjects unanimously agree
That you have repeatedly broken the royal laws.
Because you act against the law and misbehave like this,
You are unfit to rule and must be exiled!

“‘Even though Uḍḍiyāna would soon be without a king,
Some suggest you be killed, others that you be jailed.
Still others say you must be banished to terrifying lands.
Finally, those who agree with me
Ask where you will be sent to live in exile.’

“In response, I said,
‘Listen, O King, ministers, and upholders of the law!
Where will I go? To the purelands!
Though banished to terrifying places, I have no fear.
The vajrakāya knows neither birth nor death;
I am not afraid of you killing me.
You may place this apparent body — an illusion of unobstructed awareness —
In a miserable prison, but I will not be subdued.

“‘Whether in the lower realms, on the earth, or in the king’s domain,
All activities are the seeds of suffering.
If I can’t stay here, I will go somewhere else –
To the most terrifying odious Rohakāla.[17]
King and ministers, stay in good health!’

“Then I made preparations to leave, but at my time of departure,
Prabhāvatī said, ‘I must follow you!’
So I then explained to her the unity of view, meditation, and conduct
For one month, and she fully understood it.

“‘Prabhāvatī, you must now remain in the King’s domain.
I am a supreme illusory form of timeless awareness;
I never fear birth or death.
In life, much fear and suffering will come
To this heap of flesh and blood, the basis for the Truth of Suffering.

‘Therefore, why follow in my footsteps?
Don’t despair – we will later meet again.
There is no measure of life besides death, and no stability.
Strive diligently in virtue with your three doors, Noble One!’
With that and other such remarks, I imparted much advice and prophecy.”

This is the third chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on the skilful way he left the kingdom.

Chapter 4

“Then I made my way to Rohakāla charnel ground.
The great universal splendour, Chemchok Heruka appeared,
Gave initiation, and taught uncontrived conduct to me,
As I stayed in the grove amongst the graves.

“All of the people of the region gossiped,
‘He eats corpses, drinks blood,
And wears skins as clothing!
He kills the men he sees, and he joins with the women!’

“Hearing of this, King Śakrarāja[18]
Gathered his ministers and subjects, and prepared to invade.
The King of Uḍḍiyāna cried, ‘I have fostered the little son of demons!
He has been exiled to this region, so I must seize the charnel ground.
The denizens of this disastrous kingdom must be quickly put to death.’

“Then the legions of soldiers
Took up their arms.
They approached from the borders, surrounding the area.
Seeking to imprison me by force, they chanted, ‘Kill! Kill! Strike! Strike!’

“Then, I mounted a black vulture.
Proclaiming, ‘Ha! Ha!’
I soared through the sky to the east,
While the soldiers called me ‘Shoraya the Demon.’[19]

“I said, ‘I am the demon Shora Zhönnu,[20]
You must leap into the realm of the sky!’
People said, ‘Now this country has gone bad.
Filled with arrogant gods and demons, it cannot be subdued by anything at all.
If one came here again, what could be done?’
Then they left and returned to their own country.

“Later on, I went to Śītavana charnel ground.
There I beheld the deities of Mahāmāyā,
And I received empowerment and instructions for attaining the treasury of the expanse.
Through the conduct of joining and liberation,
I subdued the mātṛs and ḍākiṇīs, binding them to my service.

“Later I sat on seats of human corpses.
After I transformed the corpses into nectar,
I obtained all supreme and ordinary siddhis without exception,
And I was known then as Guru Śāntarakṣita.

“After three years, three months, and three days,
I went before the great master Prabhahasti
And requested to be trained in the dharma of yogic practice.
I beheld the assemblies of yogic deities,
Received empowerments, prophecies, blessings and siddhis,
And was praised as incomparable by the entire triple world.
My name was known as Guru Loden Choksé.

“Then, in accordance with that master’s prophecy,
On the tenth day of the snake month
At the great cave of Āsura,
When I came into the presence of Ānanda,
The monks saw excellent signs in their dreams —
The form of the Lord of Sages directly appeared.

“The Venerable Ānanda asked me candidly,
Ema! Are you a human child,
A child of the gods, or a nonhuman miracle?
What is the purpose of your coming here?’

“In response, I said,
‘Listen, great holder of the Sage’s teaching!
I am neither a child of humans nor of gods.
By the power of the Great Teacher’s previous aspirations,
I come as the heir of the Victors of the three times.

“‘I was not born from a womb, but from a lotus in an ocean.
From the sūtra perspective, I am the ‘Victorious Śākya Sengé.
From the mantra perspective, I am Guru Pema Jungné —
That is how I am praised in the Victorious Ones’ speech.’

“‘In order to engender genuine trust as a lineage holder,
I must follow a teacher and hear the advice of sūtra and mantra.
In all the charnel grounds, I strive in the essential practice.
Now that my own benefit is accomplished, I work impartially for the benefit of beings.
Therefore, I wish to take ordination in the Buddha’s teachings.
Please grant me permission, in accordance with the tradition.’

“Then, Ānanda and the others rejoiced.
After their permission had been granted, at the time of my request,
The great god Brahmā draped a red woollen blanket over me,
The Earth Goddess bestowed a saffron robe,
And Mahādeva offered a flawless burgundy skirt.
Amazed, all of the monks praised these gifts.

“After taking ordination in the Buddha’s teaching,
I was enthroned as the supreme lord of the doctrine,
And I was supplicated as the teacher, Śākya Sengé.

“Then, on the tenth day of the monkey month,
I went to the great charnel ground of Dechen Dalwa[21]
Where I was assisted by the yakṣa Shenpa Marnak.[22]
I requested the great master Śāntiṁgarbha
To bestow the complete empowerments and transmission of wrathful mantra.
Once I had accomplished the maṇḍala of wrathful mantra,
My name was known as Wangchuk Tsal.[23]

“On the tenth day of the tiger month,
I went to the Sangchen Rolpé Tsal charnel ground,
Where I met the great master Dhānasaṁskṛta
And requested the empowerment and transmission of mātṛs and ḍākiṇīs.[24]
When I had opened the maṇḍala for seven days,
The foremost Ḍākiṇī Siṁhamukhī
Actually appeared and bestowed prophecy, empowerment, and blessings.

“Giving me a triangular black stone, she said,
‘You will propagate fifty versions of my sādhana,
The innermost essence mantra Black Stone – the fourteen syllables –[25]
And myriad extremely profound points for protecting and averting.
In India and in many places in Tibet,
You will conceal them as treasures and seal them with aspirations.’

“By dissolving into my heart,
She merged with the treasury of the expanse of the great secret display of awareness.
My name, then, was Guru Pema Düddul.

“Later, on the tenth day of the sheep month,
I went to the Rotang Dalwé Tsal charnel ground.[26]
I requested the full empowerment and transmission of Śrī Heruka, enlightened mind.
From the great master Vajramārajita.[27]
We opened the maṇḍala and practiced for three months.
Directly perceiving the complete maṇḍala,
I attained the sealed empowerment, blessings, and siddhis.
I was supplicated then as Guru Dorjé Drakpo Tsal.

“On the tenth day of the rooster month,
In the grove of the Jikngam Hala charnel ground,[28]
I requested the great master Jñānasiddhi[29]
To bestow the full empowerment and transmission of Mañjuśrī, enlightened body.
While opening the maṇḍala and practicing for ten months,
I beheld the array of deities in actuality,
Received empowerment, prophecy, blessings, and siddhis.

“Then I arrived at Pema Tsek.
When I met the lord of siddhas, Wangdü Tsal,[30]
I requested the full empowerment, transmission, and instruction
For the extensive maṇḍala of Padma, enlightened speech.
I opened the maṇḍala and practiced for six months.
Beholding the maṇḍala of Padma, enlightened speech,
I obtained empowerment, prophecy, blessing, and siddhis.

“Arriving at the Fearsome Paruśakāvana,[31]
I met the master Ngonchöd Drubpé Wangpo,[32]
And obtained the complete empowerment,
Transmission, and instruction of the maṇḍala of Amṛtakuṇḍalī.
When I was performing a sacred amṛta medicine-making ceremony,[33]
I had visions of the deities, and received empowerment, blessings, and siddhis.

“Arriving at Yangsang Madjung Né,[34]
I met the foremost ḍākiṇī, Karmendrāṇī.
I requested the complete empowerment, transmission, and instructions
For the maṇḍala of Chemchok, enlightened qualities.
Entering her womb, I received an heir’s blessing,
And the empowerment as a masterful Dharma King of the three realms.

“For twelve months I opened the maṇḍala
Of the Palchen Kadü.[35]
I beheld the Nine Glorious Ones, and received empowerment and blessings.
Then Chipel[36] actually appeared to me
And I conquered the mundane arrogant guardians of the teachings.
Later, I overwhelmed all sentient beings without exception
And bound them to my service.
My name then was Guru Wangdrak Tsal.[37]

“Then I went to Malaya.
I met the great master Drubpé Wangpo,[38]
And requested the complete ripening and liberating instructions
Related to Kīla Activity.[39]

“I practiced for one year
In the cave of Akarta,[40]
And beheld a vision of the the deities of Kīla, enlightened activity,
Receiving empowerment, prophecy, and siddhis.
My name then was Guru Vajra Tötreng.

“Then, I saw that Emperor Aśoka would make a fit disciple.
After flagrantly breaking the law,
The Emperor wanted me burned alive, but I transformed the inferno into a lake.
The Emperor marvelled and relented,
And the empire of Aśoka converted to the Dharma.
My name was then Guru Tokmé Dorje.[41]

“I went to Vajrāsana in India,[42]
Where I debated the inner and outer doctrines for nine months
With the preeminent Extremist, Sūryasiṁha,[43]
And the sixty-four other Extremist teachers.

“The Extremists were defeated through miracles,
But, as the noble Nāgeśvara[44] commanded,
I was aided in this by Vaiśravaṇa Nīlāśvaraktasūla.[45]
The six groups of Extremist teachers were liberated,
And the kingdom turned to the holy dharma.

“Then, arriving in the capital of King Nāgaviṣṇu’s realm,[46]
I consorted with the Queen.
The King grew irate, and gathered his lords and subjects.
He raised a pyre of sandalwood high and wide,
Liberally dousing it with sesame oil,
And placed me inside.

“The fire blazed for seven days,
Yet, when he came to inspect, the inferno had become a lake.
There he saw me, seated on a lotus in the middle of it.
Full of remorse, the King, ministers, and subjects repented,
And offered the kingdom to me, converting the realm to the Dharma.

“Defeating all the Extremist teachers
By engaging in debate and using an array of miraculous powers,
I prevailed over all their challenges,
And the Extremists retreated into the forest.

“While striving in the activities of sorcery and lower mantras,
I said to the Great All-Pervasive Rahu,[47]
‘I command you to liberate the Extremists with lightning!’

“At that time, I proclaimed,
‘In this world, I am unrivalled.
Any and all contenders, come forth!’
And then my name was Guru Sengé Dradok.

“Then I came to Dechen Dal charnel ground,
Where for three years I subsisted on elemental essences.
I gathered all of the ḍākas and ḍākiṇīs residing in the charnel ground
And gave empowerments and blessings, and bound them to my service.
I also bound the arrogant gods and demons to oaths.
I had a vision of Tröma Nakmo,[48] and received siddhis.
My name was then Guru Nyima Özer.

“Then, to subdue the kingdom of Zahor,
With the direct emanation of the foremost mother ḍākiṇī Guhyajñānā,
The supreme consort of the Protector Amitāyus —
The Princess Mandāravā — the daughter of the King of Zahor,
And the spritual consort for attaining the vidyādhara of with mastery over life, I saw fit to overpower the kingdom of Zahor.

“Then, on the tenth day of the horse month,
Through the power of a magical emanation,
I arrived at the house of Mandāravā to see a radiant glow.
At that moment, the Princess and her ravishing retinue of servants
Joined their palms in amazement with faith, devotion,
And utmost respect, and requested teachings.

“But the King overheard, and, incandescent with rage,
He sent a message for each and every person in the kingdom
To gather a measure of sandalwood and a measure of sesame oil.

“At a place one yojana beyond the city limits
He burnt us alive. Then, after seven days had passed,
As everyone came to witness the spectacle,
They saw that we were completely unharmed.
The pyre had been transformed to a lake, and we sat on a lotus in the middle.

“Beings of the eight classes – gods, nāgas, and so forth –
Were in attendance, paying homage and listening to teachings.
The King and ministers were accordingly repentant,
And invited me to the highest storey of the palace,
Where they offered the Princess and the kingdom to me.
I stayed in Zahor for three hundred human years,
Converting the royal domain to the noble Dharma.
Then my name was Guru Padmasambhava.

“When the nations in the four directions contested my claim to the princess
The eight classes of gods and demons made me their emissary of activity
To forcefully repel the armies of the four directions.
Then I cultivated the practice of the vidyādhara of with mastery over life.

“On the tenth day of the sheep month
I set out in a chariot accompanied by the Princess.
Bypassing the Kings’ amassed legions,
We arrived at the Māratika Cave,
And all the ministers and subjects returned to their homes.

“For three months we practiced
The longevity ritual of the Protector Amitāyus.
Protector Amitāyus appeared in the space before us,
And we obtained empowerment, blessing, and prophecy.
When the united consorts dissolved into masses of light,
We attained longevity beyond birth and death.

“Later, I saw the realm of Uḍḍiyāna as ready to be tamed.
On the tenth day of the first month of summer
We arrived in Uḍḍiyāna, and when all the lords and subjects
Burned me alive, the mass of fire was transformed into a lake.

All the lords and subjects were boundlessly remorseful.
To control the kingdom, I stayed in the capital,
And, taming them, I established the kingdom in the Dharma.

“Then, the supreme child Manunātha
Was born to the Queen Prabhāvatī.
Bestowing blessings and empowerments in the kingdom,
I made aspirations for the kingdom to be ruled in accordance with the Dharma.

“Later, I returned once again to Zahor.
I taught the doctrine of secret mantra to Vihāradhāra.
In particular, I taught him the Vajra Garland longevity practice.[49]
Accomplishing the practice, he attained the state of the vidyādhara of with mastery over life.

“Then I thought that the kingdom of Gesar[50] was ready to be tamed.
Princess Mandāravā transformed into a dragon,
I mounted her in the form of Yāmarāja,
And we approached King Wangdü Zibar.[51]

“‘O King!’ I proclaimed to him,
‘Your life is almost over,
I am Yamārāja.
There is no time, we must go swiftly!’

“In a panic, the King replied,
‘Alas! Longevity Lord of mortal beings,
If there is a way for me to avert death
I would offer my kingdom, with its subjects and treasury, to you,
And I will be your disciple.
Whatever you command, I will do!’

“In response to his vow, I issued my command:
‘Assemble all of your ministers!’
The King beat a large drum three times,
And immediately, the host of ministers gathered.

“Because of my overwhelming resplendence,
They all asked, ‘What is this?’
To which the King replied,
‘If all of you ministers
Wish to prolong your King’s lifespan,
We must offer the entire kingdom without reservation.’

“In saying that, he installed me on the royal throne
And I held the kingdom for seventy human years,
Converting the entire land to the virtuous Dharma.

“Then, I thought that the King of Persia[52] would be a worthy disciple.
So, when the tenth day of the monkey month arrived,
I emanated as the child of Queen Hāritī,
The Queen of King Mijik Rabten.[53]

“I said, ‘Kye Ho! Listen closely, great King!
There is no heir for your kingdom other than me!
I am Prince Zilnön Pawo[54]
You must seek my permission in all matters of religion and politics.’

“‘The Great King, thought,
My son is merely three years old,
He is not able to understand religion and politics,
But ultimately, apart from the son, who could hold the kingdom?
But when the thought of what to do arose, he said to me,

“‘Ema! My boy, if this is what you want,
Who can better hold what is received from the father than the son?
Therefore, if you want the kingdom, I will give it to you.’

“Then he placed me on the royal throne,
Where, as regent, I converted the kingdom to the sacred Dharma.
Staying in that country for eighty human years,
I was renowned as Prince Kunkyong.[55]

“Then, focusing on ruling the kingdom
As the victorious one, the heir supreme,
I returned once again to Zahor,
Resolving back into the heart of Padmasambhava.

“After King Vihāradhāra died,
I held the reins of the kingdom
For three hundred and fifteen years
After establishing myself in the form Prince Kunkyong.

“Then, I thought that the kingdom of Bhaṅga[56] was ready to be tamed.
All of the lords and subjects of that country,
King Tumden[57] and his host of ministers,
Supported the six types of Extremist teachers.

“In Kyemo Grove,[58] a most delightful place,
Ḍākas and ḍākinīs transformed into humans
And I appeared to turn the Dharma Wheel to their assembly.

“Lacking respect, the wealthy King Tumchen scolded:[59]
‘A Ho! Sweet-talking ascetic swindler!
Arriving here, in my realm,
You dare to give a stream of explanations.
You attempt to dilute and corrupt our doctrines.
If you don’t leave this very moment,
You will be flayed alive and boiled in water.
Therefore, get out and go back to your own land.’

“In response, I said, ‘You Extremist!
These are the heretical teachings of Māra.
You are a mere murderer, hurling the kingdom into the lower realms.
Therefore, I have come here
To convert all your lands to my teaching.
King, you are under my power.’

“At my words, the King was apoplectic.
The evil-doers of that country, the evil demons, seized me.
They kept me in a wretched prison for seven years,
Where various strange sufferings befell me.

“Finally, he commanded, ‘Boil him alive in water!’
But though the ministers bound
My feet and hands in iron, they could not hold me.
They said, ‘Carry him away and throw him on an elephant.’

“The ministers lifted me up,
But, like trying to heave Mount Meru, they couldn’t carry me.
Following the royal command to kill me,
The ministers struck me with various weapons,
But due to the indestructible Vajra-like Samādhi,[60]
Their weapons shattered without harming me at all.

“The King thought,
‘How can this arrogant one be unassailable?
Since he cannot be controlled and is unpredictable,
I must summon my teachers, those worthy of worship.
If he can be vanquished through debate, we can banish him —
There is no skilful recourse apart from that.’

“The religious traditions of the kingdom,
The six groups of Extremists
And the Extremist teachers were defeated in debate.
They said, ‘Now, we must compete with various miracles!’

“In the contest of miracles, the Extremists were again defeated.
They said, ‘Now, we must compete through power and ability,’
And the Extremists retreated to the sandalwood forest.

When it was time to prove my powers,
I spat saliva on the tip of my outstretched finger,[61]
And cast it to to the sky, towards the black planetary demon[62]
Who was surrounded by the oath-bound ones of the Eight Classes.
As summoned, they filled the sky, and with twelve great thunderbolts
Crushed to dust the Extremists and their retinues.

“At that, the King was supremely amazed
And he converted his kingdom to the holy Dharma.
Both King and ministers offered the kingdom to me.

“At that time I said,
‘I have no need for this kingdom.
Like foxes and monkeys, the Extremists
Deceive sentient beings and block the various paths to liberation.

“‘Therefore, in order to lock the gates to the lower realms
And establish all of this kingdom’s subjects on the path to liberation,
I don’t have a hair’s breadth of selfish ambition
Apart from appearing here in order to benefit being.’
The King and ministers rejoiced at this
And the entire kingdom of Bhaṅga was established in the doctrine.

“Then I thought that the kingdom of Vedalī was ready to be tamed.
Vedalī’s king, Kunthub,[63] was an eloquent speaker.
He saw the sun falling on the edge of the palace
As he was revelling with his foreign and domestic ministers.
Just then a light rain began to fall in the sunlight
From rainbow clouds amassing in the sky.

“Then the King said,
‘How wondrous! Listen, wise ones,
Today my mind has been calmed —
A joyful bliss arises, the likes of which I have never known!
Heaven, earth, and space display this elemental omen.
Such a spectacle as this has never happened before!
What do you all think? Please, speak!’

“Then great minister Dondrub[64] spoke:
‘Excellent! Just as the great King has said,
I feel a similar experience of joyful bliss.
I wonder, Your Majesty, is this the miracle of a god such as Īśvara?[65]
Or is it a momentous sign or vision of a deity or protector
Arising due to the great King’s offerings
And practices of approach and accomplishment?’

“Then, in the sky, before the King and his ministers,
Red and rainbow light converged – and in the middle of a pavilion
I miraculously appeared as Maheśvara.[66]

At the moment I appeared, all prostrated, saying,
‘How wondrous! No one is more fortunate than us!
By beholding your form, an outer happiness arises.
We will certainly fulfil your every command!
We offer our bodies, wealth, and our children and spouses –
Accept these offerings, do not leave us! Protect us all!’

“So they made such vows and oaths.
‘Whether or not you are truly Maheśvara,
You must teach us!’
And faithfully they joined their palms in homage.

“Then, displaying my own form, I said,
‘I am the Māra-subduing Padmasambhava.[67]
In all kingdoms of India
The profane, perverted doctrines of Extremists proliferate,
Leading mistaken beings to the lower realms.

“Therefore, I work only for the benefit of beings.
After converting your kingdom to the doctrine,
I will make this a place where disciples are liberated.
King and ministers, take this to heart!’

“The great King said, ‘Alas!
As you say, in our minds, we think,
Now, although the King and ministers
Gathered here have taken these oaths,
These Extremists possess great ability and miraculous powers.
If we were actually to enter the gateway of your teachings
They will harm not only your life, but our kingdom as well.
You must therefore compete through debate and miraculous display.’

“On the tenth day of the Month of Miracles[68]
The Extremists were defeated in debate, and we competed in miracles.
Competing in the eight common siddhis, we were equal.

“Then, miracles of the five elements were called for.
I emanated the five elements
And bound the Extremists,
Who, astonished, entered the teachings of Buddhism
And the whole kingdom was converted to the sacred Dharma.

“Then I saw that the kingdom of Thokar[69] should be tamed.
Duly, when the tenth day of the tiger month arrived,
Aided by the ḍākiṇī Sangchen Wangmo,[70]
With the blessings of one hundred thousand formless ḍākiṇīs.
Miraculously flying through the air,
I went to the Sindūra Cave.[71]

“Emissaries commissioned by the King addressed me:
‘Here in our land there are only non-Buddhists;
Buddhists are not permitted to teach.
Because this edict is ironclad,
Your tradition is not suitable — therefore you must leave now.
If you stay, you will be killed in accordance with the law.’

“In response to this, I said,
‘I have come for a higher purpose.
Because my body is unborn and deathless, though you may kill me, I have no fear.
Because my mind is free of hope and fear, your laws do not frighten me.
Because any place is neither good nor bad, I will stay in this cave.
Because there is no work apart from the Dharma, I have abandoned worldly activities.
I will not follow the perverted views of Extremists.
King, whatever you do, you must understand this.

“‘Messengers, when you tell this to the King,
His Majesty will be irate, quivering with a rising rage.
Assembling his hosts of ministers, he will say,
‘Destroy this foreign yogi, this barbarian infidel!
Who knows where he comes from? How dare he come here!
Let him teach when he is burning in fire.’

“Then all the ministers said,
‘Bind him to sandalwood doused with sesame oil –
Everyone should carry a load!’

“And so, having carried the fuel, they placed me in the centre of the pyre.
But, in the very place where I should have been burning,
The gathered Extremists heard a resounding, ‘Ha ha!’

When nine days had passed,
They saw me arise as the wrathful Nangsi Zilnön[72]
Soaring in the sky to a height of seven cubits,
Surrounded by ḍākas and ḍākiṇīs, all offering respect.

‘The King and ministers confessed with remorse and sorrow,
And offered the kingdom and all its riches to me.
The Extremists respectfully prostrated, saying,
‘Whatever you command, we will obediently fulfil!’
Reneging on their oaths and prior proclamations
They invited me to the royal palace,
And the kingdom was converted to the virtuous Dharma.

“Then, I went to the Kula Dzokpa charnel ground. I was assisted there by the ḍākiṇī named Wangdüma,[73]
And I bound to oath the mātṛs, ḍākiṇīs, gods, and demons
Who dwelled in the charnel ground, leading them to the path of Dharma.

“Arriving at Akaniṣṭha,
On the tenth day of the pig month,
I met the deity of timeless awareness, Samantabhadra-Vajradhara.[74]
I requested explanations of all the teachings
Of the extremely secret, unsurpassed Vajrayāna.
I was renowned then as Kunzang Pendé Wangchuk.[75]

“On the tenth day of the mouse month,
Arriving at the Yangleshö cave in Nepal,
I settled in the ‘Overwhelming Appearance and Existence with Splendour Samādhi’[76]
During the first watch of the night
I bound to oath King Takdong[77] and his seven siblings.
And I bound Hormo[78] and her nine relatives to oath at sunset.
At daybreak, I bound to oath the the’urang spirit Lükyong Nödjin,[79]
The Mamo Reti[80] and her nine relatives,
And the murderous Pelthog Gyalmo[81] and her three relatives.

“Then in the Meri Barwa charnel ground,[82]
I was assisted by Ekajaṭī, the Protectress of Mantra, the Queen of the All-Encompassing Space.
She instantly arrived though her miraculous power.

“I requested the empowerment, transmission, and instructions for the Rigdzin Lama[83] practice
From Shönu Nampar Rolpé Wangpo.[84]
I practiced it in the east, at the Raya Stūpa Grove,[85]
And manifested the accomplishment of the practice.

“Then I arrived at Mount Aḍakavatī.[86]
Where I was assisted by the goddess Pramohā.[87]
From Vajrapāṇi, the Lord of Secrets,
I requested empowerment, transmission, and instructions for Jigten Chöto. [88] Practicing in the Jikjé charnel ground,[89]
I became the ruler of the entire maṇḍala of Jigten Chöto.

“Then I arrived at the Rangjung Tsal charnel ground.[90]
While I practiced, I filled the entire area around the charnel ground
With hundreds of emanated phantoms,
And became the ruler over all of the infinite maṇḍalas.

“Then I arrived at the Khandro Sangphuk cave at Tak Dzong Grove,[91]
In the Jikrung Ngamji charnel ground.[92]
Again, I practiced Vajrakīla.
After six months, the maṇḍala deities
Appeared in the sky, and dissolved into my body.

“As two separate miraculous emanations,
I went to both China and Mongolia[93] simultaneously.
I indentured malevolent gods and demons, binding them to oath,
And converted entire kingdoms to the virtuous Dharma.

“Once again, back at the Tak Dzong Cave,[94] I merged back into one form.
The teacher and yidam united, and, on account of my wild wrath,
My name then was Guru Dorje Drolö,
As I bound to oath the eight classes of planetary and tsen spirits.

“Then I practiced in the grove at the Jarung Khashor Stūpa[95]
And the hosts of ḍākinīs urged me to prophesy.
So I said, ‘Five hundred years from now, in the time of degeneration,
Border barbarians will destroy the Buddha’s teachings.
One follower of yours will come in the time of degeneration,
And there will be six hidden lands.
Pray that he will appear through the power of the Miraculous Samādhi.’
In saying this, I gave a weighty prophecy.

“Then I went to the Serung rock cave[96]
To cultivate the Timeless Awareness of the All-Encompassing Space of Phenomena Display Samādhi.[97]
And I blessed the place as the hidden land Lhundrub Dzong.[98]

“Arriving at the Tak Dzong Cave,[99]
I cultivated the Mirror-like Awareness Display Samādhi.[100]
And I blessed the place as the hidden land Dorjé Dzong.[101]

“Also, I went to the Zarchung rock cave.[102]
I cultivated the Awareness of Equalness Display Samādhi[103]
And I blessed the place as the hidden land Dremo Jong.[104]

“At the Shelkar rock cave[105]
I cultivated the Discriminating Awareness Display Samādhi[106]
And I blessed the place as the hidden land Padma Jong.[107]

“And at the Marchung Sa cave[108]
I cultivated the All-accomplishing Awareness Display Samādhi[109]
And I blessed the place as the hidden land Gawé Tshal.[110]

“Then, arriving at the Ralpa Cave[111] in the north,
Through the All-embracing Display Samādhi[112]
I blessed the place as the hidden land Yumbu Lung[113]

“Once again, I returned to India,
Where I served as King Sengé Tob’s royal chaplain.
I stayed there benefitting beings for twelve human years.”

This is the fourth chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he came to the pure lands of India and Nepal through miraculous powers, perfectly accomplishing the two types of benefit.

Chapter 5

“Then, Trisong Detsen, Emperor of the impure Tibetan lands
Instructed Trisher of the Yarlung Ba clan[114]
To carry one bre of gold dust in an ornamented bowl
And invite me, Tsokyé Dorje to come.
The messenger, as instructed,
Offered me gold dust in a golden vessel.

“Although I already knew, I asked, ‘Who are you?’
Joining his hands in reverence he replied,
‘I am Trisher of the Bami clan of Yarlung,
In Pur Gyal,[115] the kingdom of Tibet.

“‘Although formerly known as bellicose and thieving,
The Emperor of Tibet, Trisong Detsen,
Has subjugated and united all the thirty-two regions.
Now, he wishes to perform spiritual activities.
Please consider his letter of invitation.’

“Since I had received the letter, I had to go to Tibet.
I replied to him, ‘Since you are a human
With a corporeal body of flesh and blood,
You would be attacked and killed by those spirits who oppose me.
It wouldn’t be right to return there together.

“‘Tibet is the domain of demons and cannibals.
If you do not have a body of light like mine,
Free of cruel thoughts and acts — the ripening of past misdeeds —
People with normal bodies find it difficult to overcome them.
So, I will follow behind as you go ahead.
Relate this to the Emperor and take the letter to him.’

“All the gods and demons of Tibet
Would have attacked me, life and limb,
But I bound them under oaths, entrusted them with treasures,
And empowered them through magic as protectors of the Buddha’s teachings.

“After bestowing a name and a command, and sealing them with my vajra,
I placed a casket of precious treasure in their hands.
Emanating a treasury of inexhaustible enjoyments that filled space,
I commissioned them to protect the Secret Mantra teachings.

I said, ‘All you defiled gods and demons will be punished later.
My successors will invoke these bonds,
And enforce the command that you are under an oath of service
With the four types of awakened activity.’[116]

“Then, when I reached Tibet,
The Emperor, his ministers, and subjects came to meet me
And they were ecstatic as they welcomed me.
I thought, ‘I must convert the Emperor and his subjects
By displaying various miracles that will generate faith!‘

“Through myriad unobstructed miracles
The misguided Emperor and his ministers
Abandoned the afflictions and darkness of their minds.

“They listened to my commands, and with faith and devotion, they fulfilled them.
Because only heretic teachers[117] inhabited this land of Tibet,
No teachers of the holy Dharma were allowed to stay there.

“The Emperor Trisong Detsen
Arranged a seat of silken cushions, piled nine high.
Then the great monarch
Prepared a golden maṇḍala
And filled it with heaps of turquoise and gems.

“He prostrated, joined his palms, and respectfully requested:
‘My kingdom is a land of demons and defiled beings.
Previously I was a ruler in the heretic tradition.
I committed evil actions, and I did not propagate the sacred Dharma.

“‘During the reign of Emperor Thori Nyantsan,[118]
Vajrapāṇi, the Lord of Secrets,
Initiated an auspicious interdependent connection
By miraculously granting him symbols of awakened form, speech, and mind.

“‘In the reign of Emperor Songtsen Gampo,
Who was cared for by Ārya Mahākaruṇa,[119]
The three supports were installed in the temple, the foundation of the teachings.
The Emperor gave many instructions
For the stages of generation and completion of the secret method
To a few of his ministers, enabling them to experience bliss.

“‘Then, Emperor Tride Tsuktsen[120]
Began laying the foundations for the teaching of the holy Dharma.
However, due to the powers and curses of the heretics,
He ‘dissolved into space’ when he was twenty-eight years old.

“‘So I waged war with their rulers
From age fifteen to twenty-four,
Subjugating the thirty regions of the world.

“‘Then in my dreams, Vajra Dhātviśvarī,[121] the ḍākinī of awareness,
Displayed a form like fifteen rising moons, and said:
Kye ma! O Dear! This evil leader’s actions
Are the accumulated causes of the sufferings of endless saṃsāra.
Your accumulated negative actions will lead you to deep, fiery prisons.
Who will rescue you from that such an inescapable, piteous time?’

“‘Though she glared at me with menacing eyes,
I said, ‘Excellent, O Compassionate One!
Pray, tell me whether this heretic kingdom of mine
Is proper or improper.’

“‘In response the ḍākinī said,
‘This ‘heretic lineage’ is only the teaching of Māra, a perverted path.
As soon as its followers die, they are reborn as demons and malevolent spirits
Who attack the life-force of sentient beings.
In the end they will surely fall to the Hell of Ceaseless Torment.’[122]

“‘I said, ‘Very well then.
Since the heretic teachings are a cause for lower rebirths,
What method is there to gain liberation? What must I do?’

“‘When I asked this, the ḍākinī said:
‘Conquer all the charnel grounds and pilgrimage places
Of all of the kingdoms of the noble land of India.
When you have bound to oath all guardians of the teachings and places, and gods and demons of all that appears and exists,
And when you have banished Extremists and holders of wrong views from all kingdoms,
Then everyone will come to know bliss.’

“‘After the teacher, Śākyamuni, arrives,
The splendour of the disciples will arise from the all-encompassing space of phenomena.

“‘If you invite the one known
As Guru Pema Jungné,
You can be sure that the kingdom of Tibet
Will convert to the pure Dharma.’

“‘And so, I acted in accordance with that dream.
Give me a method for converting my kingdom to the dharma
And hold me with your compassion!’

“So spoke the Emperor. In response, I advised:
‘First, in a temple, the foundation for the teachings,
Raise many supports of awakened form, speech, and mind,
And train many Tibetan youths in secular knowledge.

“‘Next, commission the translations of the Indian teachings.
Although I hold the teachings and lineages of the Buddha,
And all written commentarial teachings
Have merged in me like streams in the ocean,
And I understand them all, I can not spread them.

“In order to secure the foundation of the Buddha’s teachings
You must invite Khenchen Bodhisattva,[123]
The Buddha disguised in human form,
Lord of all the learned and accomplished translators of the Noble Land,
The genuine one in whom all lineage holders place their trust,
The glorious Lord of the activity of training those to be trained.’

“In response, the Emperor said,
‘I’m not sure if I can invite the great abbot.
If it can be done, then to whom should I send the letter?
Great master, I request you foretell
Whether we have the good fortune for him to come here.’

“I advised, ‘Kye Ho!
Listen, sovereign Dharma King!
Due to the powerful past aspirations of four children
We presently have the fortune of meeting again.[124]
If the Ba from Yarlung were to invite him, that would be excellent.’
As suggested, the Ba clansman was sent to invite him to Tibet
In order to expand the extent of the Buddha’s teachings.

“Then, I, Padma Jungné, through the strength of my samādhi,
Summoned ḍākas and ḍākinīs
From the twenty-four Great Places, the thirty-two Sacred Places,
The hundred and eight Charnel Grounds, and the ten Heruka sites.

“Summoning the gods that surround the four great kingdoms,
And all the eight classes of oath-bound gods and demons
With the All-embracing Display Samādhi[125]
I appointed them as emissaries under my command.

“I bound under oath foul nāgas, māras and murderous spirits
To seize and tame the land, and raise glorious Samyé.
After that, the master and disciples performed the consecration,
And I entrusted Gyalpo Pehar as the lord of the place.

“After many young Tibetans were trained in secular sciences,
The teachings from all over India and China
Were transmitted to Tibet in their entirety.
Finally, many paṇḍits and siddhas were invited
To clarify doubts about the teachings.

“Queen Tsepong Zawa Margyan,[126]
The embodiment of the Glorious Goddess, Śrī Devī[127]
Displayed various actions so that she appeared to be a follower of the heretics.
Buddhists and heretics debated, and the heretics were defeated.
Finally, she produced the method for destroying the heretic tradition.

“Then, general teachings of the Secret Mantra Vajrayāna were given,
And in particular, the doctrine of the Great Perfection.
Siddhas who renounced this life, and practiced the essence
In caverns, grottoes, and desolate places
Filled all of the mountain slopes and valleys
Throughout all the lands of Tibet.

“Five hundred years in the future, in the degenerate time, holy teachers and students
Will find the circumstances for the succession of practice lineages severed.
The thirty-two blessings of the common teachings will have dissipated.

“Although practice will be undertaken, there will be no signs of accomplishment.
Therefore, I have concealed many teachings as treasures.
After my own rebirth among humans, these treasures will be revealed.

“After teaching many fortunate disciples, saying,
‘Boundless benefit will be accomplished for beings!’
I will fill all the lands of Tibet with treasure teachings.
In future times, they will be revealed, and prophecies will be foretold.

“‘Tsogyal, you are actually Khorlo Gyedeb:[128]
The consort of the one who has accomplished the Kīla of Timeless Awareness.[129]
Spread these indestructible, inexhaustible treasures far and wide,
Concealed in the womb of the five elements.
Enjoin the host of arrogant oath-bound protectors
To keep these secret from unfortunate or unsuitable people,
And to spread this inexhaustible profundity beyond depth or limit!’
After I had so ordered, I affixed the seal in accordance with the command, and hid them.

“Afterwards I hid twenty-five representations,
Making aspirations for the subjugation of the frontier barbarians
During the lives of those treasure-revealers who would discover them,
And I also applied the seal of awakened mind.

“Some of the treasure-revealers will have four wives each.
Some will be ignoble beings, others virtuous — one can’t be sure who will reveal treasures.
Therefore, I will give them to my emanations.
These were my fervent aspirations.”

This is the fifth chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he accomplished the benefit of beings in Tibet and expanded the reach of the teachings.

Chapter 6

Then I said, “While the Emperor’s life is not yet over,
And people have been benefitted
By many methods for taming beings,
You must not go elsewhere.

“When the Emperor has passed into nirvāṇa,
And the royal heir is still alive,
The future prince with requisite karma will hold the lineage.
He will practice in many such places
Blessed by siddhas,
In Tibetan lands of all four directions, as I have done:

“At Samyé, I practiced for seven human years,
And I stayed at Yamalung for five years.[130]
I was at the Yarlung Sheldrak cave for eighteen years.[131]

“I practiced at the Yerpa cave for three human years.[132]
I stayed and practiced at Tradruk for two.[133]
And for eleven months I stayed at the Kharchen cliff.[134]

“I stayed in the meadow of Mönkha for fifteen months,[135]
At Taktshang Canyon for three.[136]
And for three months I stayed at Shiktsang Canyon.[137]

“For five months I stayed at Domtshang Canyon,[138]
For three years and three months at Khamré Grove,[139]
And at Demo Pass in Kongpo for seven days.[140]

“For five months I stayed at Rongchung Dza,[141]
And for nine months in Rongchen at the Yema Cliff.[142]
For three months I stayed at Tigo Cliff.[143]

“Finally, I arrived in Kham,
Where for three days I stayed and practiced in Chamdo.[144]
At Minma I bound the queen under oath.[145]

“For a month I stayed in the Bemo Valley,[146]
Where I bound Bethil Nagmo to oath.[147]
And while I was staying at Yilong Tserma,[148]
I bound Soglen Nagmo to oath.[149]

“‘In the future, when my teachings
Are twisted by the upsurge of Māra’s crooked teachings,
And I myself have emanated as King Gesar,
Enemies of the teachings will pervade the four directions.
Then, you must guard the teachings as you would the life of an insect.’
Besides this, I gave many other instructions.

“Then in the Sengdrak Cave of Horpo[150]
I practiced for three human years.
I granted blessings there, as well as consecrations and aspirations.
The thirty-four letters[151] arose on the cave wall,
I bound under oath the nine damsi siblings,[152]
And I captured a local nyen rock demoness.

“I sought permission
To take a girl as a consort,
And permission was given
When the rock demoness said,
‘Since I myself have come, it is allowed.’

“For three months I stayed in Mugseng Cave.[153]
I stayed for five months at Takmo Cliff[154]
And for one year at Chumig Changringmo,[155]
Where I bound the four Semo sisters to oath.[156]

“Once, towards the beginning of my year-long stay
In Rudam Nagpo Valley,[157]
During the first watch of the evening of the six day of the ninth month,
I subdued the sixteen demonic Menmo sisters[158]
With the Arrogance-Subduing Samādhi.[159]
At midnight I subdued the twelve Murderous Spirits,[160]
At dawn I subdued nine the’urang siblings,
And I concealed twenty-five treasure caches there.

“I emanated a glorious fortress, at Dzong Tran Sangwa.[161]
There I bound to oath King Takthal of Mu,[162]
The Five Tsegyal Chukma women,[163]
The Great Nyen and the eight siblings resembling him,
And also the divine son Thökar.[164]
I entrusted treasures to them all.

“Once, in Lab,[165] on a snowy mountain
I meditated for seven days, binding to oath
The crocodile-faced demon, bear-faced demon,[166]
And their retinues of five hundred and fifty,
Appointing them all as protectors of treasures.

“Then I went to the snowy range of Tölung.[167]
When snow gods, along with the nine mātṛkā siblings
Were stirring up trouble, I bound them to oath,
Entrusting them with sixteen treasures.

“Then, in Dorje Yudrom,[168]
Where I stayed meditating for three days,
I mounted a turquoise dragon and bound it to oath.

“Arriving at the very peak of Dza Mountain,[169]
I subdued Taktra Namen.[170]
I stayed in that place for six months.

“In Kakong Sengé Dzong[171]
I bound sixteen nāga thels to oath,[172]
And practiced there for five months.
A Queen Mudo came,[173]
And the Tsen Düd Khala Mebar appeared,[174]
With one hundred thousand tsen troops around him.
But, by the Samādhi That Subjugates the Three Realms,[175]
I terrorized them all, bound them to oath, and appointed them as treasure guardians.

“Then I went to Shagdré Rock[176]
In the area of of Lhatse.[177]
The Great Nyen and his millions of nyen warriors
Sent down a rain of meteoric iron.

“When heaven and earth were filled with his warriors,
I subjugated them all through the practice of Blazing Wrath[178]
And bound them to oath.

“I terrorized him with a rain of various weapons,
And he panicked and vowed to serve me.
I sealed his vow by placing my vajra on his head,
And entrusted him to guard five treasures.

“Then I went to Mar.[179] In the Bese cave,[180]
I stayed and meditated for five days,
And bound to oath all of the gods and demons of lower Ser[181]
At Dünying Tse I suppressed Māra and the damsi demons.[182]

“Then I went to Yar,
And at the Dorje Dragkar,[183]
While I was practicing for six months,
I bound Ase Mase under oath in a drum.[184]
I concealed five treasures and bound them as a protector.

“Then I went to upper Ser[185]
Where I bound Damchen Garwa and his retinue to oath.[186]
I bestowed blessings there for one day.

“Then I went to the place called Drong Ri.[187]
Empowering and commanding the lay practitioner Dorje Drak Tsal and his retinue,[188]
I bound them to oath and entrusted treasures to them.
I stayed there for one month, meditating and bestowing blessings.

“I stayed for nine months at Doyi Takdzong.[189]
I bestowed blessings at the practice site of the Kagyé deities.

“Then, I concealed treasures at Marshö Ashö.[190]
I stayed inside the Medicinal Stūpa of Many Doors[191]
For one day, bestowing blessings and meditating.

“After filling the mountains and valleys
Of upper and lower Mar with daylight and darkness,[192]
I walked around, binding gods and demons under oath.

“Then, in the east, as I was meditating
In a haunted, snowy area
Over the course of five days,
I bound the wrathful unhindered Nyenchen under oath,[193]
And entrusted him with wealth and desirables.

“On the golden lower plain of Ma,
After taking off my hat and sitting in meditation,
I filled the entire first mountain of Ma
With manifestations of the Peaceful and Wrathful deities.
I bound the gods and demons to oath, and performed consecrations and blessings.

“In the desolate Place of Conquerors at Sothog[194]
I practiced Manjuśrī, enlightened body, for three months.

“While staying at the base of Washab Dragkar Cliff for seven days,[195]
I bound the devil Black Hala to oath.[196]

“At my dwelling place called Nāga Cave
For ten months I stayed, cultivating meditation.

“In Tsen Canyon at Kawa Karpo[197]
I stayed for one year, bestowing blessings and meditating.

“At Dza Mountain on the border between Ma and Dza[198]
I practiced for three months, blessing the place.

“Arriving at Mount Machen,[199]
I practiced for a year and six months.
I gave empowerments to the yakṣa King Gökyi Chokshuchen[200]
Along with his main consort, Drakgyal Men and his ministers,[201]
I bound them under oath, commanding them to be treasure guardians.
I established them as the principal rulers
Of the local deities of the six ridges of eastern Tibet.

“Then, when I went to Drakar Trel Dzong[202]
Chinese and Mongolian gods and demons were causing obstacles,
Filling the mountain valleys with the sounds of “Ki!” and “So!”
I sent down torrents of molten metal, flames, and weapons
And annihilated all those pernicious gods and demons.

“When they offered their lives to me, I bound them to oath,
Entrusted them with treasures, and gave them empowerments and blessing.
I practiced in that place for three years.

“In order to spread the teachings of the Buddha,
I travelled around the borderlands of Mongolia and Tibet
Performing consecrations and making aspirations.

“I then went to Dungri Karpo Mountain in the east.[203]
For three years I stayed and practiced there.
In the pure realm of millions of ḍākinīs,
I bestowed blessings and performed consecrations,
And commissioned them to guard the border of China and Tibet.

“I went to Lhadrak Karpo in Rungpo,[204]
Where I stayed for one year practicing wrathful mantras,
Establishing that site as a place for wrathful activities.

“I travelled around such places, among the six ridges of eastern Tibet,
Bestowing consecrations and blessings,
With the aspiration to spread the Buddha’s teachings.
Binding all of the gods and demons to oath,
I commanded them to protect the sacred teachings.
Finally, I returned to Tibet proper.”

This is the sixth chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he bound the gods and demons under oath in all realms of Tibet, and gave prophecy after blessing sacred places.

Chapter 7

Then the Emperor Trisong Detsen said,
Ema! Compassionate Protector,
The shining lamp of the sacred Dharma
Has illuminated all areas of this dark Tibet.

“The benefit of beings is consummated by the spread of the teachings.
Thus, now I will propagate the Eight Practice Lineages[205]
Until I am fifty-nine years old.

“Now, it would be excellent if I could practice
The precious teachings on sūtra and mantra like that.
Precious Orgyen, I pray, give me direction!

“My ancestors who have left this world have demonstrated causality,
And this must also be shown to future generations.
Please instruct us, O compassionate Protector!”

For a moment Orgyen Rinpoche rested in silent contemplation.
Then he answered,
“Now the paṇḍitas and siddhas of India and China
Must be pleased with your country’s tributary offering.
But the Emperor and all of his subjects must strive in practice,
So that the sovereign Emperor, the Dharma King, and all his subjects attain realization.”

The Emperor replied,
Kye ma! Padmasambhava, protector of beings,
All my aspirations are fulfilled.

“Glorious Samyé, the foundation for the teachings, has arisen naturally.
Tibet now has wise and accomplished beings
Like the great translator Vairotsana, and many others

“The entire ocean of the classes of sūtra, mantra, and tantra
Have spread in Tibet owing to your compassion.
The rising sun has illuminated the dark island of Tibet.
Now, all my aspirations are fulfilled.

“Until my royal lineage is no more,
Remain as our sole protector, and hold us with your compassion.
If the Master were to depart to the land of the cannibal demons,
The people of Tibet would have no protector for their hopes.
O compassionate one, don’t let your compassion dissipate!”

In response, Orgyen Rinpoche replied:
“Listen, wise Emperor and ministers of Tibet!
I shall not stay; I am going to the land of the cannibal demons.
If the savage cannibal demons are not subdued,
The entire world will fall into ruin and decline.

“There is no one who can subdue them besides me.
On the summit of the Copper-coloured Mountain, in the centre of Cāmara Island[206]
Are inconceivable pure realms, miraculously emanated.
There I will settle and emanate immeasurable manifestations.

“In billions of world-systems,
Billions of emanations of Padmasambhava
Will tame beings who are ripe for taming through expedient means.

“My retinue of disciples — the Emperor and ministers who embrace virtue —
Will certainly be reborn into my pure realm.
Previously I have only told my life story briefly.
But now, as the times grow gradually worse,
There would be no benefit, even if I stayed here forever.

“Though I was very kind to Tibet, my kindness will not be remembered.
In subduing all the malicious demons of dark Tibet,
I have acted beneficially for many future generations.

“Facing great difficulties,
I abolished the savage, heretical teachings
And converted Tibet to the sacred Dharma.
I travelled through all places and regions of Tibet,
Bestowing consecrations and blessings, and making aspirations.

“From now on, the teachings will quickly spread.
In future times, they will gradually degenerate,
And many different traditions will gradually proliferate.

“Negative deeds will be widespread, at odds with the Dharma.
Holders of the mantra tradition will engage in worldly activities,
And there won’t be anyone who manages even one year of retreat.

“Monastics won’t guard even a single vow,
But will continuously chase after profit
While secretly resorting to lovers, as do dogs and pigs.

“At that time, I cannot offer any help.
Occasionally, when the time arises
For a group of fortunate ones to assemble,
An emanation of mine, a treasure-revealer, will come,
Guiding those disciples on the path to liberation.

“Particularly, at the end of five hundred years of degeneration,
Barbarians from the borderlands will descend on the central lands,
Deceiving the minds of all people.

“Conflict, strife and myriad weapons will spread;
Bandits and brigands will pour in from the hills.

“People will only have confidence in themselves.
Various random epidemics — the fury of the mātṛs
And the meddling of the nyen — will cause death.

“At that time, to gather together the remaining disciples,
I will emanate as Dudjom Dorje[207]
And establish one thousand and eight hundred disciples in bliss.

“The entourage of students — emanations of the current Emperor and subjects —
Will do auspicious work among their heart-disciples.
When connected with the path of liberation, they will enter the path of the Dharma.

“At that time, through the power of the barbarians
The teachings of black Māra will cover the land.
Perverted aspirations will be fulfilled in an instant,
And, through myriad negative actions,
Sentient beings will suffer unpredictably, like a changing dance.
Who could give the methods for reversing this?

“Therefore, Emperor and subjects, you must master your minds.
The subjects, all, must now make great efforts
In observing the holy discipline of the Dharma.

“Life is impermanent, a temporary dream.
So cut all clinging to permanence, Emperor and subjects!

“Wealth is impermanent, like an illusory gathering,
So strive to make extensive offerings, Emperor and subjects!

“Activities are endless, like a painting, perpetually unfurling,
So practice the holy teachings — the end quickly approaches!

“Marriage is impermanent, like people in a marketplace,
So don’t quarrel or fight, but apply yourselves to the teachings!

“The royal court is impermanent, like a city of gandharvas,
So don’t engage in infighting, Emperor and subjects!

“Offer whatever you can afford to practitioners in retreat,
And you will obtain an equal share of merit, Emperor and subjects!

“Satisfy the weak and feeble by distributing food,
And your merit — the provision for future journeys — will thereby increase.

“Rely on the Refuge, the Three Jewels, never separating from them,
And later, guides for the path will come, Emperor and subjects!

“Offer as much as you can before the Three Supports,[208]
And later, just as much wealth will again be accumulated.

“Even if you have food and riches, contentment will never arise,
So always hold to the key point of reliance on contentment.

“Sustain the royal laws with the Dharma.
Ministers, amend the laws in accordance with the Emperor’s commands.

“Meditators, resort to solitary mountain retreats.
Ngakpas, protect your commitments as you would your life.
Monastics, protect your vows of discipline.
Ngakpas, exert yourselves purely in retreat practice.

“Laypeople, abandon all deception and guile,
And at all times exert yourselves in reciting the six syllables.[209]
Never forget the uncertainty of the time of death, Emperor and subjects!

“In this and future lives, there is no refuge or protector besides the teacher,
So don’t forget your teachers and always revere them,
Continuously making offerings and supplications.
Later, we will meet again, Emperor and subjects!

“Now, I must again go to Taktsang Sengphuk.
After a while spent there,
I will return to a few places in Tibet, to practice.”

At that, the Emperor, ministers, and subjects
Decided they would rather not remain in Tibet,
But would return, dejected, to their own lands.

Then the Dharma King Trisong Detsen said,
“When will come time for the rediscovery of your life-story
And this secret Heart-Drop of the Ḍākinī?[210]
Who will the treasure-revealer be?
What will be the joys and concerns of that time?
What will people be like at that time?
Precious Orgyen, I pray you tell us!”

And in response, precious Orgyen said,
“Listen, sovereign of Tibet, Dharma King!
All existent teachings of sūtra and mantra
Are contained within my teachings.

“Although Tibet lies within my field of influence,
There are savage creatures who transgress the oaths
Who encounter adversity through contradicting the teacher and teachings.
In this region I have given instructions, empowerments, transmissions, and treasures.

“The common blessings of the teachings will decline if the lineage is broken.
Therefore, the treasure-revealers, my emanations,
Will occasionally appear as ngakpas, sometimes as householders,
And some will appear as women.

“When those with pure vision receive empowerments, transmissions,
And instructions of this close lineage, they will be able to reverse the negative karma of guile and conflict,
And the first of one hundred treasure-revealers,
Named Sangyé Lama will appear.[211]
Thereafter, the hundred main treasure-revealers will come in succession.

“In the meantime, some revealers will train disciples.
Sometimes temporary situations of conflict will be quelled.
At the end of the five hundred years of degeneration,
In Nālandā monastery,
The mistaken aspiration of Geshé Pelseng will ripen.[212]
And the spread of the non-Buddhist barbarians will be reversed twice.

“They will collapse, but, among the embers in Bu, some will still propitiate
the spirit Hanuman.[213]
By the strength of combining substances, mantra, and samādhi,
Many new practices will flourish.

“These will spread by the strength of perverted aspirations of the present.
Monkey-headed th’eurang ministers,
And shangpo ministers with various types of heads[214]
Will fight and repeatedly raise obstacles,
All as assisted by Hanuman.

“The minds of all humans will be easily turned against the dharma.
Unsatisfied by the riches they have,
They will turn to theft and banditry.
Families will fight, and unhappiness will follow.

“At that time, by the power of substances blessed by the perverted ones,
The sky will be the colour of blood for eighteen months.
The eight planets will align, and Ketu will be ascendant.[215]

“At that time, beings will be beset by attachment
Because their strong desire to unite with lovers will have no cure.
Treasure-revealers with no treasure to show will cover the earth;
Few who even have practiced for one year will be seen.

“All of the great treasure-revealers, my emanations,
Will protect all beings, supreme and inferior,
Showing them the path of liberation and connecting them with it.

“Because charlatan ‘treasure-revealers’ harbour worldly aims,
Like street dogs who never really relax,
They will get no satisfaction from the food and wealth they seek.
All sentient beings with rotten minds will follow after them.

“All of the treasure-revealers, my emanations,
Should rely on various mountain ranges as supportive places.
All you fortunate ones connected to me by previous actions and aspirations,
You must strive to enter the path of liberation!

“Those who falsely claim to be my emanations,
Do not understand the view, their meditation is directly ruined,
And they have no ability to teach the Dharma to others.
Deceiving themselves and others, they hoard offerings and raise children.
All degenerate beings will have faith in people like these.

“At that time the end of the teachings will arrive.
The essence and fruition of treasures and treatises will vanish.
Then, I myself will appear in Chakmo, in eastern Tibet[216]
Among the outcaste and poor, as one known as Lha.

“In order to teach the path to students, without regard to good and bad,
I will send an emanation, a poor outcaste,
Whoever is connected with me, the present Pema Jungné,
The hosts of all laypeople, high and low without exception –
I myself will emanate to them in a human form,
As the guide who connects them to the path of liberation.

“Like my two eyes, my two heart sons —
Pelyang and Sangyé Yeshé[217]
Will be like the array of stars adorning space,
And at that time, emanations of the Emperor and disciples will reappear.

“In random mountains and valleys, one hundred and eighty people
Who are inclined to the essential practice
Will attain the confidence of fearlessness, and be liberated into dharmakāya as rainbow bodies.
When the time comes for gathering the remaining disciples
All those fortunate ones connected to me through past karma
Will enter the path to liberation, the end of samsara.

“At that time, shameless hypocrites
Will be praised by everyone.
Sublime holy beings who single-pointedly exert themselves in the essential practice
Will become the objects of attachment and anger.

“People will praise and take to be holy
Those who emanate as māras due to past negative activities.
Like throwing rocks and paving stones,
They will slander my emanations,
Who all exert themselves in the essential practice.

“At that time, the teachings of Māra will flourish.
Me, my emanations, and those two sublime beings
Will understand the signs of those supreme beings’ teachings.
They will bear the knowledge-name and strength-name of the emanations[218]
Of the present-day master from Nub, Sangyé Yeshé.
At a time when the high snow mountains are held by earth spirits,
In the west, upon the light-rays of the teachings of sūtra and mantra
I will rapidly ascend to the pure Khecara realm.
Along with eighty-two disciples.

“Tsogyal, you will hide
My concise biography
Along with three cycles of profound secret teachings
In the womb of Dorje Drak in symbolic script, as treasures,[219]
Entrusting the gyalpo spirit Yutreng as the guardian.”[220]

Then, Emperor Trisong Detsen asked,
“Will you establish the teachings in all hidden lands,
Away from the demonic teachings of the perverted barbarians?”

The great Orgyen Rinpoche replied,
“These hidden lands were entrusted
To the six types of protectors of those treasures.

“Future people will not falsely accuse you,
And the lives of the daring will be long.
Emperor, you yourself are a true emanation of Mañjuśrī,
And soon you will resolve back into Mañjuśrī’s heart.

“Later, barbaric teachings will not spread.
You and I will both return to protect the teachings and the people.
Though sentient beings are limitless in scope and number,
Sentient beings linked to me through aspirations and karma
Will be established on the level of total freedom beyond fear.”
At these words, Emperor Trisong Detsen rejoiced.

This is the seventh and final chapter of the biography of Padma that naturally liberates on sight, on how he gave direct instruction and prophecies of future times to the Emperor and his subjects.

Colophon

Samaya. Sealed! Sealed! Sealed! Iti.

In response to the earnest, repeated requests of my noble sons Khyentsé Nyugu, the excellent Khedrub Gyatso, Wangchuk, Ngawang Thinlé,[221] and many other perfect heart-sons, I, the heruka Dudjom Dorjé extracted this from the Heart Practice Bearing the Seal of Secrecy.[222] While I faithfully decoded it, Ngagkyé Jampel Dorjé of Ling wrote it down.[223] Virtue! Virtue! Virtue! Sarva maṅgalaṃ!

| Translated by Nick Schmidt, with the assistance of Samten, Stefan Mang, Ben Ewing, Lowell Cook, and Jordi Roig, 2017. Edited by Libby Hogg and Susanne Fairclough, 2018.


  1. The Profound Secret Heart Essence of the Ḍākinī (zab gsang mkha’ ‘gro’i snying thig).  ↩

  2. The principal guru, Padmākara (mU khyo pad+ma kara)  ↩

  3. Gangchen Tso (gangs chen mtsho), that is Vairocana, the most important Mahāyoga deity of the Tibetan imperial period.  ↩

  4. Lake-Born Vajra (mtsho skyes rdo rje)  ↩

  5. The noble son of Nub, Sönam Drak (gnubs kyi skye mchog bsod nams grags)  ↩

  6. Yobok Changmé Plain (yo ‘bog lcang ma’i thang)  ↩

  7. Anantavyūha (bkod pa mtha’ yas, Boundless Array).  ↩

  8. Queen Nordzin Tso (btsun mo nor ‘dzin mtsho) and nāga King Migön Karpo (klu rgyam mi mgon dkar po)  ↩

  9. Öd Tro (‘od ‘phro)  ↩

  10. Natha Vajra (na tha badzra)  ↩

  11. Changchub Drolma (byang chub sgrol ma)  ↩

  12. Karma Zangpo (skar ma bzang po)  ↩

  13. Milky ocean (‘o ma can gyi rgya mtsho)  ↩

  14. One yojana (dpag tshad) is approximately 7.5-8 kilometers, or 4,000 fathoms.  ↩

  15. Prabhāvatī (‘od ‘chang ma) and Dhaha (dha ha)  ↩

  16. Zangden (bzang ldan)  ↩

  17. Rohakāla (ro ha ka la)  ↩

  18. Śakrarāja (brgya byin ra tsa)  ↩

  19. Shoraya the Demon (bdud po sho ra ya)  ↩

  20. Shora Zhönnu (bdud po sho ra gzhon nu)  ↩

  21. Dechen Dalwa (bde chen brdal ba)  ↩

  22. Shenpa Marnak (shan pa dmar nag)  ↩

  23. Wangchuk Tsal (dbang phyug rtsal)  ↩

  24. This is referring to the maṇḍala of Mamo Bötong (ma mo rbod gtong), Dhānasaṁskṛta’s yidam deity.  ↩

  25. The innermost essence mantra Black Stone (yang snying rdo nag). The phrase here is a reference to the mantra of Siṁhamukhī, which is fourteen syllables long.  ↩

  26. Rotang Dalwé Tsal (ro thang brdal ba’i tshal)  ↩

  27. Master Vajramārajita (slob dpon chen po rdo rje bdud ‘dul)  ↩

  28. Jig Ngam Hala (‘jigs rngams ha la)  ↩

  29. Master Jñānasiddhi (slob dpon chen po dznyA na siddhi)  ↩

  30. The lord of siddhas, Wangdü Tsal (grub pa’i dbang ‘phyug dbang sdud rtsal) is possibly Nāgārjuna.  ↩

  31. Fearsome Paruśakāvana (rtsub ‘gyur ‘jigs rung tshal)  ↩

  32. Master Ngonchöd Drubpé Wangpo (slob dpon mngon spyod grub pa’i dbang po)  ↩

  33. Sacred amṛta medicine-making ceremony (bdud rtsi sman gyi sgrub)  ↩

  34. Yangsang Madjung Né (yang gsang rmad byung gnas)  ↩

  35. Palchen Kadü (dpal chen bka’ ‘dus) is likely referring to the Kadü Chökyi Gyatso (bka' 'dus chos kyi rgya mtsho) ‘The Ocean of Dharma, the Great Gathering of Transmitted Precepts’, which was revealed as a terma by Orgyen Lingpa.  ↩

  36. Chipel (spyi dpal) is likely a reference to Mahottara or Chemchok Heruka.  ↩

  37. Guru Wangdrak Tsal (gu ru dbang grag rtsal)  ↩

  38. Drubpé Wangpo (grub pa’i dbang po) is possibly the aforementioned Prabhahasti.  ↩

  39. Kīla Activity (phur pa phrin las)  ↩

  40. Cave of Akarta (a kar ta yi brag phug)  ↩

  41. Guru Tokmé Dorje (gu ru thogs med rdo rje)  ↩

  42. Vajrāsana (rdo rje gdan) is the seat under the Bodhi Tree where the Buddha Śākyamuni attained complete awakening, in modern Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India.  ↩

  43. Sūryasiṁha (nyi ma seng ge) according to Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche is an important king of India, who Guru Rinpoche converted to Buddhism.  ↩

  44. Noble Nāgeśvara (‘phags pa klu yi dbang po)  ↩

  45. Vaiśravaṇa Nīlāśvaraktasūla (rnam sras rta sngon can, or rnam sras mdung dmar rta sngon can) that is Vaiśravaṇa with red spear and blue horse.  ↩

  46. King Nāgaviṣṇu (rgyal po klu yi khyab ‘jug)  ↩

  47. Great All-Pervasive Rahu (gza’ rgod khyab ‘jug chen po) is the enlightened protector Rahula.  ↩

  48. Tröma Nakmo (khros ma nag mo) that is black Vajrayoginī.  ↩

  49. The Vajra Garland longevity practice (tshe sgrub rdo rje’i phreng ba) is found among the revealed treasures of Pema Lingpa and Ratna Lingpa.  ↩

  50. The “kingdom of Gesar” (ge sar rgyal khams) is referring to Mongolia.  ↩

  51. King Wangdü Zibar (rgyal po dbang sdud gzi ‘bar)  ↩

  52. King of Persia (stag gzigs).  ↩

  53. Queen Hāritī (btsun mo yid ‘phrog ma) and King Mijik Rabten (rgyal po mi ‘jigs rab brtan)  ↩

  54. Prince Zilnön Pawo (rgyal sras zil gnon dpa’ bo)  ↩

  55. Prince Kunkyong (rgyal po kun skyong)  ↩

  56. Bhaṅga (bha+nga’i rgyal khams) possibly refers to Bengal or Eastern Magadha.  ↩

  57. King Tumden (rgyal po gtum ldan)  ↩

  58. Kyemo Grove (skyes mos tshal)  ↩

  59. King Tumchen (rgyal po gtum chen)  ↩

  60. The indestructible Vajra-like Samādhi (vajropama-samādhi, rdo rje lta bu’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  61. Possibly because his spit was infused with the power of his mantra repetition.  ↩

  62. Possibly the planetary protector Rahula.  ↩

  63. Kunthub (kun thub)  ↩

  64. Dondrub (don grub)  ↩

  65. Īśvara (dbang phyug) is one of the names of Śiva.  ↩

  66. Maheśvara (dbang phyug chen po) is one of the names of Śiva.  ↩

  67. Māra-subduing Padmasambhava (bdud ‘dul pad+ma sa+mbha)  ↩

  68. In the “Month of Miracles” (cho ‘phrul chen po’i zlda ba) the Buddha displayed many miracles during the first half of the first lunar month, in order to increase the merit and devotion of future disciples.  ↩

  69. Thokar (tho kar) possibly refers to Northwest of Kashmir.  ↩

  70. Sangchen Wangmo (gsang chen dbang mo)  ↩

  71. Sindūra Cave (si+ndhu ra yi phug pa) is Sanskrit term for the ochre powder from Grislea Tomentosa.  ↩

  72. Wrathful Nangsi Zilnön (snang srid zil gnon drag po)  ↩

  73. Wangdüma (dbang sdud ma)  ↩

  74. Samantabhadra-Vajradhara (kun bzang rdo rje ‘chang)  ↩

  75. Kunzang Pendé Wangchuk (kun bzang phan bde’i dbang phyug)  ↩

  76. Overwhelming Appearance and Existence with Splendour Samādhi (snang srid zil gnon ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  77. King Takdong (rgyal po stag gdong)  ↩

  78. Hormo (hor mo)  ↩

  79. Lükyong Nödjin (klu gyong gnod sbyin)  ↩

  80. Mamo Reti (ma mo retI) possibly refers to (Śrī Devī, dpal ldan lha mo).  ↩

  81. Pelthog Gyalmo (bal thog rgyal mo)  ↩

  82. Meri Barwa charnel ground (dur khrod me ri ‘bar ba)  ↩

  83. Rigdzin Lama (rig ‘dzin bla ma)  ↩

  84. Shönu Nampar Rolpé Wangpo (gzhon nu rnam par rol pa’i dbang po)  ↩

  85. Raya Stūpa Grove (ra ya yi mchod rten tshal)  ↩

  86. Mount Aḍakavatī (ri bo lcang lo can) that is the pure land of Vajrapāṇi or Vaiṣravaṇa.  ↩

  87. Goddess Pramohā (lha mo pra mo ha)  ↩

  88. Jigten Chöto (‘jig rten mchod stod)  ↩

  89. Jikjé charnel ground (dur khrod ‘jigs byed tshal)  ↩

  90. Rangjung Tsal charnel ground (dur khrod rang byung tshal)  ↩

  91. The Khandro Sangphuk cave at Tak Dzong Grove (mkha’ ‘gro gsang phug stag rdzong tshal)  ↩

  92. Jikrung Ngamji charnel ground (‘jigs rung rngams brjid dur khrod)  ↩

  93. China and Mongolia (rgya nad sog yul gnyis)  ↩

  94. Tak Dzong Cave (stag rdzong phug pa)  ↩

  95. Jarung Khashor Stūpa (bya rung kha shor mchod rten tshal) is a reference to Boudhanath Stūpa in Kathmandu, Nepal.  ↩

  96. Serung rock cave (se rung brag gi phug pa)  ↩

  97. The Timeless Awareness of the All-Encompassing Space of Phenomena Display Samādhi (chos dbyings ye shes rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  98. The hidden land Lhundrub Dzong (sbas yul lhun grub rdzong)  ↩

  99. Tak Dzong Cave (stag rdzong phug pa)  ↩

  100. The Mirror-like Awareness Display Samādhi (me long ye shes rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  101. The hidden land Dorjé Dzong (sbas yul rdo rje rdzong)  ↩

  102. Zarchung rock cave (gzar chung brag gi phug pa)  ↩

  103. The Awareness of Equalness Display Samādhi (myam nyid ye shes rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  104. The hidden land Dremo Jong (sbas yul ‘bras mo ljongs) is a reference to Sikkim, India.  ↩

  105. Shelkar rock cave (shel dkar brag gi phug pa)  ↩

  106. The Discriminating Awareness Display Samādhi (sor rtog ye shes rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  107. The hidden land Padma Jong (sbas yul pad+ma ljongs)  ↩

  108. Marchung Sa cave (dmar chung sa yi phug)  ↩

  109. The All-accomplishing Awareness Display Samādhi (bya grub ye shes rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  110. The hidden land Gawé Tshal (sbas yul dga’ ba’i tshal)  ↩

  111. Ralpa Cave (byang lung ral pa’i phug)  ↩

  112. The All-embracing Display Samādhi (‘ub chub rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  113. The hidden land Yumbu Lung (sbas yul yum bu lung) is the location of the first Imperial-period Tibetan fortress.  ↩

  114. Trisher of the Yarlung Ba clan (yar lung sba mi khri gzher) that is Nanam Dorje Dudjom.  ↩

  115. Purgyal (spur rgyal) is the archaic name of imperial Tibet.  ↩

  116. The four types of awakened activity (las bzhi) are pacifying (zhi ba’i las), increasing (rgyas pa’i las), magnetizing or subduing (dbang gi las), and wrathful (drag po’i las).  ↩

  117. Heretic teachers or 'Bönpos' (bon po)  ↩

  118. Emperor Thori Nyantsan (rgyal po tho ri gnyan btsan) was the 28th Emperor of the Yarlung Dynasty.  ↩

  119. Ārya Mahākaruṇa (‘phags pa thugs rje chen po) that is Avalokiteśvara.  ↩

  120. Emperor Tride Tsuktsen (Khri lde gtsug bstan r. 710-755/56)  ↩

  121. Vajra Dhātviśvarī (rdo rje dbyings phyug ma)  ↩

  122. The Hell of Ceaseless Torment (mnar med dmyal ba)  ↩

  123. Khenchen Bodhisattva (mkhan chen bo dhi satwa) that is Śāntarakṣita.  ↩

  124. This is a reference to the story of the establishment of the Boudhanāth Stūpa as told in “Liberation Upon Hearing: The History of the Great Jarung Kashor Stūpa“.  ↩

  125. The All-embracing Display Samādhi (‘khor ‘das ‘ub chub rol pa’i ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  126. Queen Tsepong Zawa Margyan (btsun mo tshe spong bza’ ba dmar rgyan ma)  ↩

  127. Śrī Devī (dmag zor rgyal mo)  ↩

  128. Khorlo Gyedeb (‘khor lo rgyas ‘debs) or Tṛptacakra, that is the consort of Vajrakumāra.  ↩

  129. Kīla of Timeless Awareness (ye shes phur pa), that is Vajrakumāra.  ↩

  130. Yamalung (g.ya’ ma lung) is a hermitage near Samye.  ↩

  131. Yarlung Sheldrak (yar lung shel brag)  ↩

  132. Yerpa cave (yer pa’i brag)  ↩

  133. Tradruk (khra ‘brug) is a temple established during the reign of Emperor Songtsen Gampo, near Seng Gong (seng dgong) in Yarlung.  ↩

  134. Kharchen cliff (mkhar chen brag)  ↩

  135. The meadow of Mönkha (mon kha ne’u ring)  ↩

  136. Taktshang Canyon (stag tshang rong)  ↩

  137. Shiktsang Canyon (gzig tshang rong)  ↩

  138. Domtshang Canyon (dom tshang rong)  ↩

  139. Khamré Grove (khams ras tshal)  ↩

  140. Demo Pass in Kongpo (kong yul de mo la)  ↩

  141. Rongchung Dza (rong chung rdza)  ↩

  142. Rongchen at the Yema Cliff (rong chen ye ma brag)  ↩

  143. Tigo Cliff (ti sgo brag)  ↩

  144. Chamdo (chab mdo) is a large city in Kham.  ↩

  145. Minma (smin ma)  ↩

  146. Bemo Valley (be rdo)  ↩

  147. Bethil Nagmo (be thil)  ↩

  148. Yilong Tserma (yid slong tsher ma can)  ↩

  149. Soglen Nagmo (srog len nag mo)  ↩

  150. Sengdrak Cave of Horpo (hor po’i seng brag)  ↩

  151. The thirty-four letters possibly refers to the consonants of the Tibetan alphabet.  ↩

  152. The nine damsi siblings (dam sri spun dgu)  ↩

  153. Mugseng Cave (rmug seng phug)  ↩

  154. Takmo Cliff (stag mo’i brag)  ↩

  155. Chumig Changringmo (chu mig byang ring) refers to the site of Chumig Changchub in Nepal.  ↩

  156. The four Semo sisters (bswe mo spun bzhi)  ↩

  157. Rudam Nagpo Valley (ru dam lung pa nag po)  ↩

  158. Menmo sisters (sman mo bcu drug)  ↩

  159. The Arrogance-Subduing Samādhi (dregs pa zil gnon ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  160. The twelve Murderous Spirits (bla rkun bcu gnyis)  ↩

  161. Dzong Tran Sangwa (rdzong phran gsang ba)  ↩

  162. King Takthal of Mu (dmu rgyal stag thul). Mu (dmu) is a type of demon, or the name of a clan.  ↩

  163. The Five Tsegyal Chukma (rste rgyal phyug mo rnam lnga)  ↩

  164. The divine son Thökar (lha phrug thod dkar)  ↩

  165. Lab is in Lhoka.  ↩

  166. The crocodile-faced demon (chu srin) and the bear-faced demon (dred gdong can)  ↩

  167. Tölung (stod lung) is near Lhasa.  ↩

  168. Dorje Yudrom (rdo rje g.yu khrom)  ↩

  169. The peak of Dza Mountain (rdza ri rtse rgyal)  ↩

  170. Taktra Namen (stag bkra gnam sman)  ↩

  171. Kakong Sengé Dzong (ka kong seng ge rdzong)  ↩

  172. Nāga thels are a type of earth Nāga.  ↩

  173. Queen Mudo (rgyal mo dmu rdo)  ↩

  174. Tsen Düd Khala Mebar (btsan bdud kha la me ‘bar) is a preta king.  ↩

  175. The Samādhi That Subjugates the Three Realms (khams gsum dbang sdud ting ‘dzin)  ↩

  176. Shagdré Rock (bzhag ‘bras rdza)  ↩

  177. Lhatse (lha rtse)  ↩

  178. The practice of Blazing Wrath (khro bo ‘bar ba’i brtul zhugs)  ↩

  179. Mar is in Lhodrak.  ↩

  180. Bese cave (be se brag phug)  ↩

  181. Lower Ser (gser smad)  ↩

  182. Dünying Tse (bdud snying rtse)  ↩

  183. Dorje Dragkar (rdo rje brag dkar)  ↩

  184. Ase Mase (a se ma se)  ↩

  185. Upper Ser (gser stod)  ↩

  186. Damchen Garwa (dam can mgar ba) is likely Vajrasādhu, (rdo rje legs pa), the protector who assumes the form of a blacksmith.  ↩

  187. Drong Ri (‘brong ri)  ↩

  188. Dorje Drak Tsal (rdo rje drag rtsal)  ↩

  189. Doyi Takdzong (rdo yi stag rdzong)  ↩

  190. Marshö Ashö (smar shod a shos)  ↩

  191. The Stūpa of Many Doors (mchod rten sgo mang)  ↩

  192. Mar (sMar)  ↩

  193. Nyenchen (myen chen)  ↩

  194. The desolate Place of Conquerors at Sothog (bso thog rgyal ba’i dben gnas)  ↩

  195. Washab Dragkar Cliff (Wa zhabs brag)  ↩

  196. The devil Black Hala (bdud po ha la nag po)  ↩

  197. Tsen Canyon at Kawa Karpo (rong btsan kha ba dkar po)  ↩

  198. Ma (rma) and Dza (rDza)  ↩

  199. Machen (rma chen)  ↩

  200. The yakṣa King Gökyi Chokshuchen (nor bdag rgyal po rgod kyi cog zhu can)  ↩

  201. Drakgyal Men (drag rgyal sman)  ↩

  202. Drakar Trel Dzong (brag dkar sprel rdzong)  ↩

  203. Dungri Karpo Mountain (dung ri dar po)  ↩

  204. Lhadrak Karpo (lha brag dkar po)  ↩

  205. The Eight Practice Lineages (sgrub sde brgyad) likely refers to the Kagyé (bka' brgyad).  ↩

  206. The Copper-coloured Mountain (zangs mdog dpal ri) and Cāmara Island (rnga yab gling)  ↩

  207. Dudjom Dorjé (bdud ‘joms rdo rje) that is Dudjom Lingpa.  ↩

  208. The Three Supports (rten sum) are the three representations or supports of enlightened form (statues), speech (scriptural texts), and mind (stūpas).  ↩

  209. That is the mantra of bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.  ↩

  210. Secret Heart-Drop of the Ḍākinī (gsang ba’i yang gsang mkha’ ‘gro’i snying thig)  ↩

  211. Sangyé Lama (sangs rgyas bla ma, 1000-1080) was the first tertön, or revealer of termas hidden by Guru Rinpoche for the benefit of future generations.  ↩

  212. Geshé Pelseng (dge bshes dpal seng)  ↩

  213. Hanuman (ha nu ma dA) is possibly referring to the Vaiṣnava folk hero Hanuman.  ↩

  214. shangpo ministers (zhang blon)  ↩

  215. This refers to Encke’s comet.  ↩

  216. Chakmo (lcags mo)  ↩

  217. Pelyang (dpal dbyangs) and Sangyé Yeshé (sangs rgyas ye shes)  ↩

  218. The knowledge-name and strength-name (mkhyen pa’i ming dang stobs kyi ming)  ↩

  219. Dorje Drak (rdo rje brag)  ↩

  220. Yutreng (g.yu phreng can)  ↩

  221. Khyentsé Nyugu (mkhyen brtse’i myu gu), Khedrub Gyatso (mkhas grub rgya mtsho), Wangchuk (dbang phyug), and Ngawang Thinlé (ngag dbang phrin las)  ↩

  222. The Heart Practice Bearing the Seal of Secrecy (thugs grub gsang rgya can) refers to Tukdrup Sangwe Gyachen (thugs sgrub gsang ba’i rgya can), a practice cycle within the major Zabsang Khandro Nyingtik cycle (zab gsang mkha’ ‘gros snying thig) of Dudjom Lingpa.  ↩

  223. Ngagkyé Jampel Dorjé of Ling (gling gi sngags skyes ‘jam dpal rdo rje)  ↩

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