Buddhist Philosophy › Dependent Origination
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Texts on the subject of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda; rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba) or interdependent arising:
This short text, which appears twice in the Derge Kangyur (Toh 521 & 981), includes the formula of dependent origination, the so-called ye dharma, said to have been told to Śāriputra as an encapsulation of Buddha Śākyamuni's teachings.
In this short annotation commentary, Loter Wangpo explains the nature and subdivisions of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) and identifies the somewhat cryptic numerical references in Nāgārjuna's verses.
This short text attributed to Nāgārjuna, which appears in the Abhidharma section of the Tengyur (Toh 4101), is a commentary on the so-called ye dharma formula of dependent origination.
In this short text, called Pratītyasamutpādahṛdaya in Sanskrit, Nāgārjuna explains the heart or 'essence' (hṛdaya) of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) in just seven stanzas. He shows how the twelve links of dependent origination can be further condensed into the three categories of afflictions (kleśa), karma and suffering, and how all phenomena, being interdependent, are empty of true existence.