Essential Instructions on Guru Yoga
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The Staircase That Leads to Lotus Light
Essential Instructions on Guru Yoga
by Dodrupchen Jigme Tenpai Nyima
In saṃsāra’s ocean grows a thousand-petalled lotus of compassion,
In the centre of which, in the perfect youth of pristine wisdom,
Is the Lotus Born, Dorje Ziji Tsal—
May he remain inseparably upon the Copper-Coloured Mountain in the core of my heart!
The prophecy concerning Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa, which is found within the sealed words of the Embodiment of Realization, says:
One will emerge who leads all with a connection to the realm of vidyādharas.
As this indicates, it is mainly on the basis of the outer practice of the guru, The Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, that everyone with a connection will travel to the realm of vidyādharas, thereby fulfilling the prophecy, as explained in the history of the treasure revelation and the great biography. Here, I shall set down in notes all the key points of instruction, as I see them, on this guru yoga which leads practitioners to the realm of the Copper-Coloured Mountain.
Generally speaking, this practice of the guru should only be explained to disciples of the supreme level, for whom it opens the door to the experience and realization of the main practice. Nevertheless, here I shall describe it in a manner suited to the ordinary disciple who aspires toward liberation in a future life. This will consist of twelve sections.
1) It is taught that we should meditate on how all that our perception encompasses is in reality the realm of Lotus Light. Within the ocean, surrounded by the eight great islands of rākṣasas, which are places even more wondrous and splendid than Somapūri and Malaya, the two supreme fields that are equal to pure celestial realms, there is a great lake, as if the blue sky had become a pool upon the earth. At its heart is a glorious copper-coloured mountain—vast, tall and naturally imposing. On some of its slopes are cities of rākṣasas, a few of which contain delightful mansions, while others have the form of charnel grounds. Warriors (vīras) and ḍākinīs play in celebration upon the summit, which is beautiful and resplendent, with plentiful wondrous features, and vast and expansive. There are wish-granting forests, springs of nectar, rocks of crystal and meadows filled with flowers; there are soaring flocks of birds and bees, all skilled in the symbolic songs and dances of the ḍākinīs; and there are lovely deer, who proudly frolic and prance about. All the essentials that might be wished for, including clothing, adornments, furniture and food and drink, are readily available. The sky, which is adorned with lattices of rainbow light, is filled with vidyādharas and ḍākinīs, who amass like specks of dust in a sunbeam. They chant secret mantras and perform vajra song and dance, creating sounds that instantaneously transform perception into great bliss. Located at the centre is the palace of Lotus Light, which has the nature of various brightly coloured jewels. Its radiance is overwhelming, and it has many special features to its design—to the south is an assembly hall of pacifying dharma; to the east, a pleasure hall of enrichment, and so on. It has golden roofs and is adorned with garlands of tiny bells that play the sounds of Dharma. It is filled with boundless riches and adornments. Those who have the fortune to be born there are referred to in the texts on the peaceful and wrathful deities:
Born miraculously in a single instant
In the great palace of the vidyādhara assembly on the glorious mountain of Cāmara.
As this indicates, such beings appear there unsullied by the womb. Garner the full details from other sources and reflect on them repeatedly. It is also crucial to consider repeatedly how if you take birth in Cāmaradvīpa you will be born in Lotus Light, and to keep this as an object of focus until it takes effect.
2) As explained in the final chapter of The Treasury of Precious Qualities, ordinary beings are unable to see these exquisite realms of the accomplished vidyādharas of unsurpassed secret mantra to their full extent or to experience them directly, for they must be attained on the basis of deity yoga. Here, it is the degree to which the illusory majesty and blessings of the ultimate co-emergent wisdom within Guru Rinpoche’s heart enter our own hearts that determines the extent of our engagement with this pure realm. If we relate this to the way appearances were revealed to disciples, the two who were supreme at invoking and taking control of this wisdom were Mandāravā and Tsogyal. The latter, in particular, is especially close to us Tibetans and is described as queen of the realm of the glorious mountain. To receive her blessings therefore creates an especially strong connection for invoking the Guru’s wisdom and reaching the realm of Lotus Light, and this is why we generate the pride of adopting the yoginī Tsogyal’s form.
3) Focus repeatedly on the features of Guru Rinpoche’s genuine deathless vajra-kāya and train in the yoga of recollection, so that it becomes exceedingly familiar within the mind. This is the greatest of causes for being directly guided by that form, which is therefore the most important within the field of merit. It is generally taught that the Guru’s form is not of one fixed appearance. Here, during this terrifying period at the end of time, when obstacles to reaching the realm of the vidyādharas are vast and numerous, the form known as Prevailing Over Appearance and Existence (Nangsi Zilnön), which is renowned as their supreme antidote, is especially sublime. The style of meditating on the gurus as a gathering at a marketplace is best for creating the interdependent conditions for swiftly meeting many gurus at advanced stages and receiving the nectar of their instructions, as in the biography of Bodhisattva Sudhana. This is why it is crucial to follow the visualization outlined below. The guru offering practice called Ocean of Attainments is more elaborate, and includes Saraha and Nāgārjuna and his heirs, as well as Asaṅga and Śāntideva, Dharmakīrti, and glorious Atiśa—most of the accomplished paṇḍitas related to the general teachings and especially those who had the greatest impact on the mantra tradition. That also derives from the translation from ḍākinī symbols in the colophon to the root text of the guru practice.
4) Although the Precious Master does not waver in his compassionate guiding of disciples, for us to benefit swiftly from his activity depends on our connection with the guru who reveals this path. The guru thus functions like a channel that carries water from a reservoir and connects it to a field where it is needed. In this regard, a guru who has the transmission will first accomplish the essence of Orgyen Rinpoche’s form and all pure realms by meditating on the Guru as the embodiment of all buddha families. Then, as they confer empowerment upon us they entrust us with the kingdom of Lotus Light. For this, it is not simply a matter of trust that the guru does so; it is established in the ocean of tantras that Orgyen Padma actually enters the teacher’s body at the time and grants his blessings. This is a fundamental point when it comes to our authority to access that realm. In order to reinvigorate and maximize the stream of blessings from the root guru’s conferral of empowerment we must view the guru as indivisible from Orgyen Padma and exert ourselves in the recitation and visualization. As the root text says:
Inseparable from my own root guru, embodiment of all sources of refuge,
Appears the nirmāṇakāya, Lake-Born Vajra.
Among all sources of refuge the one with whom we have the greatest connection is the root guru, so it will be easy for us to achieve rebirth in his or her presence. Here, it is a special key point that, through the power of the way of practice, it is easy to take rebirth in the guru’s presence and therefore easy to take rebirth on the Glorious Copper-Coloured Mountain.
5) Here, the goal is not simply to encounter the Great Ācārya face-to-face but to be where the Guru permanently resides and cares directly for those around him, to obtain the special form of a vidyādhara. This form is exceptional in its subtle radiance and so on, because of the greatness of the place of birth or the greatness of the family in which one takes birth. Then, the goal is to serve as the Guru’s attendant, retain a treasury of Dharma, and master the activity of guiding beings who pervade the whole of space. For this it is not sufficient to emphasize prayer alone. We must create the right interdependent circumstances through the Vajra Vehicle’s many avenues of accumulation, purification and multiplication. Essentially, we must exert ourselves in the seven-branch practice.
Let us take each branch in turn. It is said that prostrating before the stūpa of a victorious one leads to rebirth as a universal monarch as many times as there are atoms in the earth. Here, the crucial point of being connected to the mantra practice of guru yoga makes this an avenue for becoming a universal monarch who is a vajra vidyādhara. When it comes to offering, the guidance manuals describe offering palaces, pleasure gardens and so on among the many avenues for creating the special interdependent circumstances to enjoy the excellent abode of the vidyādharas. Confession purifies the general obscurations that prevent taking birth in the buddhas’ presence, and all impairments and breakages of samaya in particular. Cultivating sympathetic joy for the bodhisattvas’ activity of perfecting, maturing and purifying gathers many accumulations for cultivating pure realms, and combining this with rejoicing in beings’ virtuous acts by means of the mantra vehicle creates identical sources of virtue to those of the vidyādharas in the vajra realm and brings the same fortune. Requesting the turning of the infinite dharma wheel of the three general vehicles and especially the great secret tantra collection serves as a supreme source of virtue for gathering a treasury of oceanic learning in the Guru’s presence. Beseeching to remain is the key to being inseparable from the appearance of Guru Orgyen Rinpoche’s form until the essence of awakening is reached. When dedicating, it is a major key point for developing one’s realization of the Great Vehicle impartially in future to bring every element of the whole path to great awakening within one’s focus. These should be understood precisely.
6) As is directly apparent from the prayer which begins, “O Guru Rinpoche, precious one…,” you must reflect on the Guru Padma of Oḍḍiyāna’s qualities and kindness, so that your mind is captivated by the guru and can think of nothing else. Spend a long time generating powerful longing, so that you are deeply moved both physically and mentally, and seek absorption into the Guru, as if unable to bear any form of separation. Offering yourself physically, vocally and mentally with total conviction and no hesitation, and then fervently pray. This is an extremely profound method of effecting the transference of body, speech and mind into the expanse of the Guru’s realization through devotion. Focusing on the Guru and pure realm while lacking such devotion is like casting sawdust on the surface of a river—an ineffective, futile act. When encountering the subjugation of enemies, protection of allies, commerce, agriculture and the like, we understand how they can trap us like flies wherever we go. Similarly, here, we can understand how once we have transferred into the Guru’s wisdom mind, there is no point returning once more. It is essential that we understand this by reflecting on the situation as described in the lines, “In these evil times, the beings of the Kāliyuga are sinking in a swamp of intense and unbearable suffering,” and then make a firm decision.
7) As it is said, “Without relying on others or miraculous powers, they do not see those above.” Thus, since it is mainly through others’ power that we will achieve rebirth in the realm of Lotus Light, it is vital that we focus repeatedly on invoking the Guru’s blessings in various ways. This is because the more blessings we receive, the easier we will find it to travel to that realm, just as one who is caught by a hook that is deeply embedded will have have no chance of fleeing elsewhere. For this, the blessings of the three vajras are invoked individually, and then there is the invocation of the blessings of indivisible vajra wisdom. The full details can be understood from consulting the words of the text, such as, “The blessing of the vajra body of the buddhas infuses me…” in the visualization for receiving the four empowerments. By obtaining warmth on the path of great bliss in particular we will be able to travel to the sublime abodes of the vidyādharas, and even receiving the slightest blessings from this will make a great difference when it comes to travelling to such celestial and terrestrial realms in future. We must also consider that the white, red and blue light-rays through which we receive empowerment are nothing other than the nectar of blessing in the form of light. This correlates very closely with the visualization for receiving the wisdom of attainment in the Rigdzin Yumka (Female Vidyādharā) practice, where the text says, “From the guru’s body a stream of nectar… etc.” Thus, in short, the visualization is exclusively one of invoking the wisdom of great bliss. This can also be understood in relation to the second point listed above.
Moreover, tantras such as Blazing Clear Space and Illusory Secret Essence teach that there are many aspects of the channels, wind-energies and essences within our bodies that generate the three doors of the three lower realms and the ordinary higher realms. Destroying their power is a profound key point for the post-mortem guidance practice known as the purificatory incineration of the six realms and an excellent skilful method that helps open the great pathway to the pure realms of great bliss. Here, this is complete within what is detailed precisely as the light from oṃ purifying physical actions and obscurations of the channels, the light from āḥ purifying vocal actions and obscurations of the wind-energies, and so on. Then, since the text also mentions all four vidyādhara levels when it says that this process sows the seed of the completely matured vidyādhara and so on, it can be understood, if we examine without pulling at silk threads, how the capacity for entering the ranks of the vidyādharas is also produced.
Know too that at this time of receiving empowerment, if you can consider that the surrounding gurus and ḍākinīs all remain united in intention with the main figure and direct their wisdom toward the bestowal of empowerment, the blessings conferred will be even more powerful.
8) Here, in this treasure text, the special prayer for travelling to Lotus Light is the one that begins, “When my life is at an end…” This is unlike any ordinary supplication and carries the great blessings of vajra speech. Nonetheless, unless we can direct the mind well and blend the prayer with our very being, it will not function as it should. The text itself says, “I pray to you from the bottom of my heart. It’s not just words or empty mouthings.” If we do not even direct our minds properly, so that we have no idea of the meaning and our attention is dispersed between the upper and lower ends of the valley as we look to the right and harken to the left, then saying, “It’s not just words or empty mouthings” is tantamount to lying to the field of merit, which is utterly shameful. Anyone we examine, ourselves or others, will have many such faults. Repeat the prayer either seven or twenty-one times at the time of accomplishing the pure field and concentrate well.
9) This concerns the main practice of visualization for travelling to the sublime realm. For this, the Guru considers us, smiles, and looks at us with an expression of joy. Red light of compassionate great bliss, warm with blessings, emerges from his heart like the rising sun and serves as a cord that leads us towards Lotus Light and receives us there. By touching our hearts it purifies all the impurities of our three doors. The natural expression of devotion, which arises as bliss, is concentrated into a red sphere that has the force of a shooting star, and we focus our attention on it single-pointedly. Then, just as an excellent racing horse will gallop wherever it is directed, the force of our intense devotion causes it to fly upwards. The aforementioned hook of compassionate light-rays draws it in like a magnet attracting iron filings, and it instantly dissolves into the Guru’s heart. Hold your attention on this experience of blending mind with wisdom. Recalling the guru’s qualities earlier was a means of subduing the mind; here, it brings the kind of joy a swan feels when plunging into a pool of lotuses, which is more powerful. Fervent prayer alone, without feelings of joy and elation, does not have such great force.
The prayer says, “...is transformed into a radiant, shimmering sphere of light.” I wonder if this is what creates the powerful interdependent conditions for travelling to the realm of the Glorious Copper-Coloured Mountain at the time of death, when energy-mind becomes a sphere of light that is unaffected by any impurity such as the pain of dying and is sparklingly clear with the brilliant light of bliss. All the sūtras and tantras teach that the compassion and activity of the victorious ones are such that they appear without obstruction precisely according to the inclination and wishes of the disciples to be trained, just as crystal instantly takes on the colour of whatever is nearby. Do not doubt, therefore, by thinking that this is only your prayer and belief and that it might have little impact on what really happens. For The Prayer that Spontaneously Fulfils All Wishes (Sampa Lhundrupma) repeats no less than thirteen times: “With no trace of doubt or hesitation we pray.” This is extremely important.
While emphasizing this very point, consider that your own features and those of the pure realm appear vividly once more just as before, like the stars and planets reflected in a vast lake. At the end of any number of recitations of the prayer that begins “When my life is at an end…” blend your mind with the guru’s wisdom mind as was just explained. Repeat this three or seven times (or some other number). Although this involves a key visualization for directing consciousness upwards, it is not a form of transference in which body and mind are separated, so it is clear that it represents the best form of transference, which avoids any danger of the shortening of lifespan.
10) The instruction and the treasure text both say that a special key point is to recite Aspiration for the Copper-Coloured Mountain of Glory as well. The text of this aspiration is not only a prayer and a means of establishing the pure realm, it is also a highly valuable description of the stages of the path of the Guru Vidyādhara Assembly (Lama Rigdzin Düpa), including the generation and perfection stages and the Great Perfection. Therefore, reciting it by “recalling the meaning after the words” (tshig rjes don dran) is sure to create positive habitual tendencies.
11) The notes in the treasure text say that we should never consider our place of dwelling as ordinary but regard it as the actual Copper-Coloured Mountain. If the momentum of our applied meditation within the session is cast to the wind immediately upon entering the post-meditation, then, as with those that we label weak-willed, there will be nothing leftover. So between sessions we must train by adopting a strong conviction that everything that appears to us is the environment, companions, and enjoyments of the realm of Lotus Light. We must practice as the treasure text says, by adapting to any circumstances that arise or objects we encounter, be they pleasant or unpleasant, in the manner of applying a single remedy. Similarly, by training continuously in a way that means both the session and the period between sessions support one another, like horses cooperating to scratch fleas, then even without changing our physical form, our mind’s perception will make it seem as if we had already been reborn on the Copper-Coloured Mountain. Then, the force of our familiarity, like the tension contained in a rolled-up piece of paper, will ensure that as soon as we escape the enclosure of this physical form we will be led directly to that realm—a sublime key point. The process of transference through generation stage practice is similar.
12) During the day there is greater focus on the pure realm in relation to appearance, whereas the nighttime yoga (as the culmination of training in the perfection stage of blending mind and wisdom) applies mainly to the nature of that realm and the aspect of emptiness. For this, you visualize the beautifully arranged realm just as before and invite the guru at your crown to descend onto the bed of the lotus in the centre of your heart. Through his light rays, the whole of the pure environment and its inhabitants, including your own body, dissolve into the centre like breath evaporating from a mirror. Then, blend your mind with the sphere of great luminosity and fall asleep. When you become proficient at this, you will be able to view the palace and deities—the support and supported—within the pure realm however you wish, at the slightest impulse, within your dream. Since there is a correspondence between sleep and death, gaining excellent familiarity with this becomes a major key point for the time of death and the bardos. It is worth investigating further whether there is some correspondence between cultivating the path of the brahma-aperture, which is said to be crucial to transferring consciousness to the pure realm, and the visualisation sequences for the guru’s arrival and departure by means of that path when sleeping and waking.
There are subtle points concerning how to explain, using the particular language of the Heart-Essence, how the daytime and nighttime yogas validate one another and the way that the individual aspects of the realm, form, and palace are all complete within a single moment of genuine natural consciousness. The first of these is quite easy to understand, while the second concerns the profound meaning of the main practice, so I shall not discuss it here.
Reflect on how Tibetans in general and especially those who practice the profound treasure teachings will find it easy to take to birth in this realm on account of their strong connection with Guru Rinpoche through karma and aspirations, and generate joy. Reflect, too, on the great significance of being reborn there. This has mostly been covered by what has already been explained. Still, I will elaborate further and bring everything together in one place, as follows.
This place has none of the contaminations of the degenerate age that weaken our physical form, vitality, affluence, and inclination towards virtue. Such contaminations are overwhelmed by the greatness of the vidyādhara realm with its all-encompassing purity and the strong self-radiance of illusory wisdom, as well as through the force of the powerful vidyādharas and ḍākinīs with their mantras, samādhi and yogic conduct. This means that there are no conditions for obstructing the path to accomplishment. The riches of this place of accomplished vidyādharas are marvellous to behold and induce an experience of great bliss the very moment they are seen. The more familiar you become with this place, the more your pure perception increases. No matter how you view it, still you cannot fathom the full extent of its blessings. It arises as whatever you desire; it appears just as you wish. It is in harmony with your mind. Others cannot spoil it. It is as if the force of mastery had taken form. Encountering it spontaneously engenders trust in the phenomenon of a place conferring blessings on an individual.
The secret treasuries of Dharma held by devas, nāgas and ḍākinīs within the realm arise spontaneously like summer flowers. It has the qualities of a place that is naturally created through mantra. Such is its power that even the likes of us can take birth there and possess the fortune and abundant qualities of a vidyādhara in that realm. It naturally carries the blessings of those who reside there permanently as well as of the vīras and ḍākinīs from other celestial realms who visit, miraculously travelling to and fro. They direct their wisdom intentions and have the power to offer assistance on the path.
Through the stable faith and devotion in mantra and the sources of attainment that comes from continually seeing the inconceivable power of accomplishment, all the siddhis of action and wisdom readily arise.
The realm’s principal figure in particular is the one known as the immortal Padmākara of great bliss. He is the source of all sacred Dharma and the basis from whom all tantras, scriptures and instructions originate. He has all the attributes of the buddha families and maṇḍalas. His form incorporates all the wisdom of attainment. He is resplendent with the brilliance of wisdom and love, like a billion suns. He inspires wonder in the great vīras of the celestial realms who gaze upon him. He imparts instructions to the vajra ḍākinīs who are as limitless as the dharmadhātu and who act as his servants. This one, who has obtained a nature that is as unfailing as the tides of the ocean and acts without delay to tame disciples throughout the infinite realms of the ten directions, is like the crown of your buddha family whom you serve, inseparable from your own allotted guru throughout the three times, partaking of the nectar of profound Dharma. The guidance manual says:
There, in that pure realm you will surely reach the level of Samantabhadra by completing the path of the four levels of vidyādhara even more swiftly than the course of the sun or the moon.
This is precisely how to proceed without error. By way of contrast, you might now explain the Dharma until your mouth is dry and wander about until the soles of your shoes are worn through but still find it difficult to improve the lot of a single sentient being. Meanwhile, in this realm it requires only a short time and slight effort to become like Mañjughoṣa or Avalokiteśvara with an impartial mastery of disciples’ temperaments through the wheels of Samantabhadra’s activity. Therefore, whichever of the two aims one considers, this represents the pinnacle of all positive aspirations.
We have been plagued by suffering in the unbearable depths of the lower realms throughout beginningless time. Now that today we have managed to incline our heads towards the higher realms, it is as if we have been offered a single meal after missing out on a hundred occasions. By seeing this and not slipping into indifference, we can be caught with the hook of compassion, introduced to the tradition of Dharma, nurtured by maturing and liberating instructions, and establish the foundation of interdependence for training in the whole of the excellent path of the victorious ones, from the four transformative contemplations through to the vajra pinnacle of clear light. As a loving mother might instruct her child:
You must reach the end of this practice. The end is marked by the attainment of buddhahood. If you discontinue the practice you will never get there. Since your intelligence and diligence and other interdependent conditions for the path are slight, you will not reach the destination in this life. Yet even in the next life, there is a great risk of disruption as you fall inexorably downwards as if caught in an avalanche. To leave the stones upriver and avoid having to reverse their downward course, I offer you this instruction, which is easy to accomplish and convenient to apply, and which is like a sword of attainment that if seized and handled well will instantly result in joining the ranks of the vidyādharas. Consider how you have been given this means of attainment and how it will lead you to the Dharma in the presence of the Buddhas. There is no way to repay the glorious guru for this kindness alone, so you must recognise the kindness and remind yourself of it, and you must go where the father of Dharma sends you.
You should know that according to the Omniscient One himself, the Root Empowerment of the Vase Conferring Majesty must be conferred before this teaching can be put into practice, and that even if you receive the empowerment if you impair the samaya, then let alone attaining the physical support of a vidyādhara, it will be difficult to gain even a human birth. This is why the guidance manual says, “…with completely pure samaya and devotion…” As this indicates, if any impairment occurs there is no alternative but to exert oneself in the methods for purifying commitment by repairing it and so on.
You may have the instruction, but if you do not train well and gain assurance now while you are in good health, your mind is clear, and you are independent, then when death suddenly arrives or you are struck by a fatal illness, your thoughts will be in turmoil and you will lack self-control, like a feather blown by the wind. You will have no appetite for exertion, and even if you did you would not be able to reflect properly and would therefore be incapable of action. This is why it is crucial that you train beforehand. It is also a profound, crucial point to create momentum by repeatedly reflecting on how this is the way to practice at death and in the bardos.
If you activate the power of this blessed practice of the guru, it will certainly bring attainments in the next life, like fruits ripening at harvest—that is needless to say. Even in this life, all your wishes will be fulfilled, like blossoming flowers, and all obstacles will be eliminated. Consider how it is therefore a wish-fulfilling jewel, sufficient in and of itself, and hold it as a fundamental commitment.
If a herd of cattle, fatigued and sullied by dirt and water,
Finds relief in the melodious song of a cuckoo,
Is it any wonder that the lute-like instructions of Padmākara’s profound treasures
Relieve the torment of fivefold degeneration?
This excellent instruction, like the youthful time of spring,
Causes the shoots of virtue to grow in beings’ minds.
And the activity of the Lotus Born is swift to arrive,
Like the maiden of summer who’s tirelessly beckoned.
May I too, from now on, throughout the series of my lives,
Obtain the kingdom of a cakravartin who benefits others,
And may the precious rain of the glorious guru’s activity
Shower down in every realm, wherever space pervades.
Thus, Jigme Tenpai Nyima noted this down as a reminder in the hopes that it might benefit those of similarly meagre intelligence. May virtue abound! Third month, Water Bird year (1912).
ʼjigs med bstan paʼi nyi ma. “bla maʼi rnal ʼbyor la nye bar mkho baʼi yi ge.” In gsung ʼbum ʼjgs med bstan paʼi nyi ma (bdud 'joms rin po cheʼi dpe mdzod khang du bzhugs paʼi shing par dang lag bris 'dres ma). Gangtok: Dodrub Chen Rinpoche, 1974–1975. Vol. 2: 39–64
______. “bla maʼi rnal ʼbyor la nye bar mkho baʼi yi ge.” In gsung ʼbum ʼjigs med bstan paʼi nyi ma (si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang). 7 vols. Chengdu: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2003. Vol. 4: 49–70
Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. Guru Yoga. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, 1999.
Ford, Renée. The Role of Devotion (mos gus) in Tibetan Heart Essence Traditions: Devotional Affect and Its Relationship to Dzogchen’s Foundational Practices (rdzogs chen). Unpublished PhD thesis, Rice University, 2020.
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. A Profound Concentration of Nectar: Essentialized Stages of Visualization for the Preliminary Practices of the Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse (Longchen Nyingtik). Translated by Adam Pearcey. Lotsawa House
Dorje Ziji Tsal (rdo rje gzi brjid rtsal) is one of the names of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. ↩
Abhidharmakośa III, 72cd ↩
Reading bsam brlag mdo shog as bsam brlag mdo shor. ↩
Following the Gangtok edition which has rkyen med pa. Chengdu reads rkyen byed pa. ↩
i.e., one’s own or others’ aims. ↩
Note that the citation does not match the source precisely. ↩
yi dam gyi mthil. ↩